More About It:
Page Notes from Fair Clear & Terrible
Ms. Shirley Nelson has
donated her page notes from her original draft of Fair Clear and Terrible to the
website. One of the chief criticisms of the book by Kingdom authorities upon its
release was that the source materials were impossible to verify and hence its contents
were unreliable. The reality is however that the page notes were deleted from the
book at the last minute before it went to print by the publisher for cost saving
considerations. We are pleased, therefore, to provide herewith the long
overdue information necessary for those curious or interested to dig deeper. A brief
introduction, also previously not printed, had been prepared by Ms. Nelson and is also
reproduced below. The format, from left to right, starts with the page number
on which the reference, given subsequently in italics, originates. Author, title,
publisher details, and page numbers then follow, together with comments and notes.
Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8
Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter
Chapter 13 Chapter
Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter
Chapter 18 Chapter
Chapter 21 Chapter
Chapter 23 Chapter
Chapter 25 Chapter
Chapter 27 Chapter 28
Sources and Notes
This book is not a definitive history of the Shiloh
movement. Nor is it an extensive treatment of the religious and cultural context from
which Shiloh emerged. The story brings us in touch with areas of history that have been
the subject of wide and expert study during the last generation. The scholars represented
here have been my instructors and mentors for over a decade of research. I am indebted to
them beyond measure for the light they have provided and regret that the size of the
project makes it impractical for me to include them directly in the text, or in the notes
in many instances in which they have guided me. They should not be held responsible for
the distilled use I make of their work.
For facts regarding Frank Sandford's life and the history, of Shiloh, I must thank Frank
Murray for the years of compiling which have given me access to a full chronology I could
not have gained by myself. To that, William Hiss's excellent dissertation adds insight and
balance and it was Hiss, as well, who did the grueling exploration of newspaper coverage
on which I have been able to build.
My father, Arnold White, has been the obvious major source for White family data and the
collected stories of many Shiloh participants. His memory of fact and nuance, enduring and
quick throughout his life, has no substitute as a primary source.
Most of Shiloh's history is verifiable beyond reasonable doubt. Yet the substance of
rumor, gossip and hyperbole - when they are noted as such - have a legitimate place in the
total story, for the Kingdom was a reality of many kinds. So I have used every source
available to me, sleuthing out the facts, but recognizing the value of biased accounts and
faulty memory. Those are history, too.
Abbreviations of some of the most frequently used
sources are as follows after their first appearance:
FWS Frank Weston
ALW Arnold L.
SYWG Seven Years With God
Tongues of Fire
GT of the K Gold Tidings of the Kingdom
Gold T The Golden
SAII Shiloh As It
Lewiston Evening Journal
New York Times
Lewiston Daily Sun
Pages 17 to 25
18 New, Gloucester still felt like frontier: The Plantation of
"New Glocester" had once been a frontier in the truest sense. Established first
in 1735 by farmers and hunters migrating from the shores of Massachusetts of which Maine
was a wild and rugged extension. the town was deserted due to repeated Indian raids. In
1753 the settlers returned, led by the Stinchfield family of Cape Ann. The Whites arrived
from Braintree. Massachusetts, about 1785. By then Maine was a Province with seventy two
organized towns and 100.000 citizens, but still largely a wilderness. William Williamson. The
History of Maine vol. I ( Hallowell. Maine: Glazier. Masters and Co.. 1832). 406-407.
19 The Awakening was a pivotal occaision:
Sidney E. Ahlstrom. A Religious History of the American People, vol. I (New York
Doubleday and Co.. 1975). 346 362: William G. McLoughlin. Revivals. Awakenings, and
Reform ( Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1978 45-58; Edwin Scott Gautad. The
Great Awakening in New England (New York: Harper and Brothers. 1957), 102-125;
Winthrop S. Hudson. Religion in America: An Historical Account of the Development of
American Religious Life (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1973) 76-82.
Puritan Calvanism, with its stress: Some colonists had
side stepped the pervasive tensions of Calvinistic society by adopting Some form of the
Antinominian position. which in generalized terms credited humans with the ability to sway
their own eternal fate by faith or "good works." Perry Miller. Errand into
the Wilderness (New York: Harper and Row, 1956). 48-98. Hudson, 7-9, 32, 65, 79.
All that joyful singing: The proper interaction between
the "head" and the "heart" was an old issue in Christian circles.
Puritans did not deny the role of emotion in religion. Rather. they were concerned about
its proper function. See Jonathan Edwards, "A Faithful Narrative of the
Surprising Work of God." and "A Treatise Concerning Religious
Affections. Ola Elizabeth Winslow, ed., Jonathan Edwards: Basic Writings
(New York: New American Library. Inc., 1966) 97, 184, 128-130; Gaustad. 96-101. Gathering
in large masses with the crowd psychology that involved was new itself in the colonies
until the Awakening. George Whitefield. the radical young Anglican from England, whose
electrifying preaching from Georgia to Massachusetts made the Great Awakening a widespread
experience, addressed immense outdoor crowds, drawing people from many miles around.
Notice Nathan Cole's account in Mark A. Noll, et al., Eerdmans' Handbook to
Christianity in America (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1963).
the world shaking context of the Enlightenment: The interacting influence
of the Enlightenment and Pietism had been at work in America for many decades.
Enlightenment thought, particularly as expressed in Common Sense Realism, or Baconianism,
honored recordable concrete observation as the avenue to knowledge. Pietism, a movement
which had linked itself in various styles down through the history of the church, condoned
the same individualistic view of experience. The Awakening evangelists preached a
pietistic message. Whitefield himself had been influenced by John Wesley, who had in turn
been inspired by certain German Pietists. William G. McLoughlin. "Pietism and the
American Character," American Quarterly 12 (Summer 1965), 163-187; Sidney M.
Mead. The Lively Experiment. The Shaping of Christianity, in America (New York:
Harper and Row. 1963). 34, 35: Henry F. May, The Enlightenment in America
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1976). 42-65.
J. M. Bumsted and John E. Van der Wetering discuss colonial Pietism in What Must I Do
To Be Saved? The Great Awakening in Colonial America (Hinsdale. Illinois: The Dryden
Press, 1976). For a full treatment of the earlier history of Pietism in the church. see
Ernest F. Stoeffler, Continental Pietism and Early Christianity (Grand Rapids:
William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. 1976).
20 The more cautious now
watched with despair. Gaustad. 61-79: McLoughlin. Revivals, 35, 42, 86.
Dozens of parties began to leap into life: Many of the new
sects, sparked by disagreement over a fragment of doctrine, faded quickly. At the same
time the already stable orders grew, including those in the mellowing tradition of the
Calvinists Presbyterian, Congregational, and Dutch Reformed. By the end of the century
over 300 Baptist churches had been established in New England in thirteen different
associations. Ahlstrom. vol. 1. 359-361. Methodism, in time Separated from the Anglican
family, gained quick hold and flowered abundantly. For one discussion of denominations
both before and after the Awakening. see Hudson. 23-58, 109-130.
The New Light Stir: Beginning as a revival among Quakers and
Baptists, the Stir lasted from approximately 1780 to 1785. One effect of the revival was
to address the need for organization and identification among the Congregational
dissenters in the smaller settlements of the hills. Stephen A. Marini, Radical Sects
of Revolutionary New England (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982). 1-7.
"I ain't orthodox" Sarah Orne Jewett. "The Guests of
Mrs. Timms" in The Best Stories.of Sarah Orne Jewett (York and Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1925), 193.
Prevail they did: More than 150 Freewill congregations had been
established by 1815, says Marini. 94. The New Gloucester group was first named by Randel
as "The Church of Christ at New Durham," after the New Hampshire town where
Randel's work first began, though they began calling themselves the Freewill Baptists soon
after. In philosophy and doctrine the Freewill Baptists, drew from several sources.
In the already established Baptist tradition of independence they found a model for the
separation of church and state, a doctrinal base (with minor variations in terms of
Calvinism), and believer's immersion as a public statement of faith. From the Quakers they
borrowed an emphasis on private light within a monitoring community (perhaps a controlled
Antinomianism) and from the Methodists a priority on holy living. Like many of the
developing sects, they believed the Millennium was at hand. Marini p. 139-144, 175- 176.
Ephraim Stinchfield, grandson of the founder of New
Gloucester and father in law to Wendell White's grandfather, Job White, was an early
evangelist for the Freewill Baptist. Baptized as a young man by Randel, Stinchfield
traveled by horseback throughout southern Maine, baptizing over 1,000 people. It was
largely as a result of his labors that the Freewill meeting house was built on Gloucester
Hill in 1820. Ephraim Stinchfield, Some Memoirs of the Life, Experience, and Travels
of Elder Ephraim Stinchfield (Portland, Maine: privately published. 1819).
21 would have howled in protest: The concept of the New Land as the
physical site of the Kingdom of God began with the early English settlers of New England .
The "first half century of national life saw the development of evangelicalism as a
kind of national religion." Particularly after the Second Great Awakening early in
the nineteenth century, Americans across the nation "saw themselves as agents of one
nation, one people, having, as Princeton's Charles Hodge put it in 1829, 'one language,
one literature. essentially one religion, and one common soul.' " Martin E. Marty, Righteous
Empire: The Protestant Experiment in America (New York: The Dial Press, 1970). 48,
57. The goal, in actuality, was the Millennium, "a perfect moral order with perfect
moral freedom." explains McLoughlin, Revivals, 96, 97. Civilization. education.
morality, and godliness all came in the same package. By the time of Lincoln's presidency,
society was "so shot through with Christian presuppositions that the culture itself
nurtured and nourished the Christian faith." Robert T. Handy, A Christian
America: Protestant Hopes and Historical Reality (New York: Oxford University Press.
107 1). 37, 38, 64; Ernest Lee Tuveson. Redeemer Nation: The Idea of America's
Millennial Role (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1968), 137-186; Nathan 0.
Hatch. "Evangelicalism as a Democratic Movement." in Evangelicals and Modern
America. George M. Marsden. ed., (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.,
Bates College: The school was founded in 1854 as
"The Maine State Seminary" and ten years later was chartered as a college, the
only co-ed institution of higher learning other than Oberlin. Its original purpose was to
provide Free Baptist young people with a safe Christian haven of learning. Bowdoin, in
nearby Brunswick, an older school with a fine reputation, was thought to be too expensive
for most farm boys, and perhaps seemed too sophisticated.
22 The solemnity of the decision: As Marini explains, though Freewill Baptists
stressed the "human soul's power of choice" in salvation. they denied Arminian
connections. The choice did not imply "ability" to save oneself. In fact. it was
exactly one's inability the recognition of the need for mercy that was at stake. Marini.
139-144. "Start" is a term I find both in family literature and Shiloh
locutions. The term "born again", while from Scripture, was not as popular as it
23 The decade of 1870: Much of the trouble can be credited to the long process of
recovery from the Civil War and the adjustments of the nation to industrialization and
capitalism. But under President Grant's less than astute leadership, favoritism in
appointments, divisions in the Republican party, graft, fraud, labor conflicts threw the
country into confusion. Rod W. Horton and Herbert W. Edwards, Backgrounds to American
Literary Thought (New York: Appleton Century Crofts. 1967). 194-195; Daniel Walker
Howe. ed., Victorian America Philadelphia: University or Philadelphia Press,
1976). 3 9. The farmers felt it first. Frederick Cople Jaher, Doubters and Dissenters.
Cataclysmic Thought in America, 1885-1918 (Glencoe: The Free Press. 1964). 54-56.
Throughout the century there had been emigrations out of the hills, caused by embargos,
crop failure, and weather conditions. In another fifty years 33 percent of the state's
farmers would go out of business. Harold Fisher Wilson. The Hill Country of Northern
New England. Its Social and Economic History, 1790-1930 (New York: Columbia
University Press. 1936). 103 n., 365-366.
25 ...changed the nature of the farm: More than a quarter of the remaining farms
in Maine had turned to dairying by 1900, raising livestock rather than produce. Wilson.
...he lived in a depleted state. Wendell was witnessing what
Van Wyck Brooks calls "Spiritual anemia . . . the Yankee ebbtide, a world of empty
houses and abandoned farms, of shuttered windows, relics. ghosts and silence." Van
Wyck Brooks. New England, Indian Summer, 1865-1915 (Boston: E. P. Dutton and Co..
Inc.. 1940), 87. In some cases whole villages had emptied out in the hills of New England.
See Perry D. Westbrook. Acres of Flint: Sarah Orne Jewett and Her Contemporaries (Metuchin,
New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press. Inc.. 1981). 4- 6; Hal S. Barron. Those Who Stayed
Behind: Rural Aspects in 19th Century New England (New York: Cambridge University
Press. 1984). 32-33. The muscle of the Protestant churches had weakened to what Ahlstrom
calls a "formlessness." Ahlstrom. vol. 2. 189-190: Paul Carter, The
Spiritual Crisis in the Gilded Age (Dekalb, Illinois: University of Illinois Press,
Pages 27 to 40
27 The Sandfords were known: The farm had been in the family for three
generations before Frank was born and had always done well. Though dirt farmers could not
compete with produce coming east by rail from the Midwest, wool was still much in demand
at the nearby mills, and hay a cash crop could be shipped to the livery stables of Boston
where the need was steady for horse drawn trolleys and hacks. Apples, which amounted to
900 bushels a year on the Sandford farm, were carried off in wagons to the depot, four
miles away in Bowdoinham village. Wilson. 80: Frank S. Murray, The Sublimity of Faith:
The Life and Works of Frank W. Sandford (Amherst. New Hampshire: The Kingdom Press,
1981), 26-27: William C. Hiss, "Shiloh: Frank W. Sandford and the Kingdom,
1893-1948," PHD. dissertation, Tufts University, 1978.
Frank Weston Sandford: The Weston was for Edward Payson Weston, a
newspaperman who had gotten national attention by hiking from Boston to Washington,
D.C.,,in 1861 in order to be present at Lincoln's first inaugural. Murray. 25, drawn from
The New Yorker (2 March 1963). pp. 23, 28.
28 James died in 1876: The Sandfords joined "a statistical majority of
families that saw the father dead before the youngest child reached maturity." Hiss,
40. quoting Tamara K. Hareven. ed., Anonymous Americans: Explorations in Nineteenth
Century Social History (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. 1971). 2. As with the
Whites, the death of the parent came during the earthquake of change in the hills which
was making the ideal of the "substantial yeoman" a mere memory. Hiss. 145. 146.
The record of Frank Sandford's early years:
Frank W. Sandford, Seven Years With God (Mt. Vernon, New Hampshire: Kingdom
Publishing Co., 1957 I am using the original edition, printed at Shiloh.
Maine. 1900. pp. 3 5: Murray, 21-25; Hiss, 31-54. I am indebted to Edward Webber, grandson
of Sandford's niece, for the Sandford family genealogies and other domestic details.
"for whom the loss of": Hiss, 41.
29 Mary Jane found it easier: The daughter and granddaughter of Freewill Baptist
pastors, she was a matriarchal figure in the church and the neighborhood. Her youngest
daughter later claimed that "whatever of good [Frank) had in his character he owed to
her and to no one else." Murray, 22. Mary Jane was no shrinking flower of a woman.
All reports point to an earthy farm woman who gave herself to whatever labor called and
grew as tough as an old tree in the process. One story out of the archives of her
granddaughter tells of a day in the Sandford kitchen when, to the child's astonishment,
Mary Jane reached into the oven and pulled out a sizzling hot pan with her bare hand.
"Lordy! Ain't that hot!" she exclaimed cheerfully, setting the pan down on the
"It was my delight": The Golden Trumpet 3,
July-August, 1915, p. 333.
30 Play for its own sake: Harold Seymour, Baseball. The Early Years, Vol. I (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1960), 31-41.
Team orchestration aside: Hiss, 47.
In the Maine hills, the teacher: I have no idea what Frank was
paid. but George White. Wendell's brother, drew a salary of $20 a month and board for his
first school in the town of Poland, and at the end of the first half day he was convinced
that as much as "$100.00 a month and a room at the Poland Spring House would not be
enough." White family records.
31 Years later, newspapers: Lewiston Evening Journal, 28 October 1911.
32 As for horses: Interview with Alvin Lancaster.
33 "Hurling such contemptible suggestions": For the conversion story,
SYWG, 4; Hiss, 44-45; Murray, 37-39: The Everlasting Gospel, June 1-30, 1901, pp.
176-177. The date of the decision was February 29, 1880, a leap year. Tongues of Fire,
February 1, 1900, p. 18.
35 That feisty ''boy's team": Murray, 47; Bates Student, Vol. 14, 1886, p.
Lewiston was as crazy: LEJ, 26 June 1886.
"Sandford has caught": Bates Student, p. 134.
Frank graduated . . . with honors: Gold T 2, Thanksgiving 1913. p.
For a long time: Frank had the added incentive of Henry
Taylor, a Negro slave child who had been brought north at the age of twelve by Thomas to
live with the Sandfords, and had gone on to complete his education, study law, and set up
a successful practice in Augusta.. Murray. 40. 919 n. 13.
36 That fall, still uncertain: Hiss, 52; Murray, 52-53.
Cobb Divinity, says: Hiss. 32. Until recently, the same
God was considered to be behind every kind of knowledge. A popular text for years had been
William Paley's Natural Theology, proofs of the existence of God from nature. Common Sense
Realism. with its premise that truth is comprehendable to all earnest, seeking people, had
been the prevailing philosophy (or "anti philosophy") taught in American schools
for most of the century a common ground. George M. Marsden. Fundamentalism and American
Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism, 1870 1925, (New York: Oxford
University Press. 1980). 14 21, 42 26: Mark A. Noll, "Common Sense Traditions and
American Evangelical Thought." American Quarterly 37 (Summer 1985). 216-238.
It is hard to know how to label: The "split"
was hardly a near or quick one. Just after the Civil War, evangelicalism was still the
dominating force in American life, though it had lost much of its power. What it meant to
be "Christian nation" was being modified. Handy. 118-119. (Handy's entire
treatment of this subject is most helpful) Marsden uses two representative figures, Henry
Ward Beecher and Jonathan Blanchard, to clarify the "diverging paths" in the
Protestant Church. Marsden, Fundamentalism. 21-32. Hudson quotes Beecher in a
lecture to ministerial students at Yale, saying that if they did not make their
"theological systems conform to the facts . . . the pulpit would be like a voice
crying in the wilderness." Hudson. 266-267. See also William G. McLoughlin. The
Meaning of Henry Ward Beecher: An Essay on the Shifting Values of Mid-Victorian America.
1840-1870 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1970) 54-55.
37 "disgust for every artificial way": Murray, 298: SWYG, 6.
The quote more fully: "I made up my mind I would be myself in religion. I am so glad
God kept me from the sham of artificiality --the attempt to convey a lie and say something
. . . that I did not live. . . .After I started our on this line .... I found God
intensely real." EG, January 15-28. 1902, p. 362.
38 For the next three years: Murray, 55-58. George White, Wendell's brother,
records in his diary for June 12, 1888. "Sandford and I had a union baptism in the
Androscoggin River." George baptized six young people. Sandford twenty six.
Pages 41 to 58
41 A well bred woman: Grant Wacker, "The Holy Spirit and the Spirit of
the Age in American Protestantism. 1880-1920." The Journal of
American History 72 (June 1985). 52. For the Smiths' wide ranging connections, see
Robert Allerton Parker. The Transatlantic Smiths (New York: Random House, 1959).
an old housedress: The goal of perfectionism was tied to the
hope of the coming Millennium, which many saw as "the climax of the Christianization
of civilization, fulfilling history." Handy, 34, 35, 38. Even the rationalists
believed in the perfectability of society, and their endeavors were as idealistic as the
spiritual ones. John L. Thomas, "Romantic Reform in America: 1815-1865,"
in Ante-bellurn Reform, David Brion Davis, ed., (New York; Harper and Row, 1967),
153-176; Noll, et.al, Eerdmans' Handbook, 188-207. For the idea of perfecting the
body, see Anita Clair Fellmen and Michael Fellman. Making Sense of Self : Medical
Literature in the Late Nineteenth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania
Press, 1981). especially pp. 205-224.
Other groups sought more radical: For Wesley's thought, Robert W .
Burther and Robert E, Chiles, ed., A Compend of Wesley's Theology (Nashville:
Abingdon Press. 1954). 205-215. For light on the transition from Wesley's theories to
Finney's. the higher life. and the 1857 revival, including the strong influence of Phoebe
Palmer. a Methodist mystic. see the following: Ahlstrom. vol. 2. 287-294: Donald W.
Dayton, "The Higher Christian Life" Sources for the Study
of the Holiness. Pentecostal and Keswick Movements, 48 vols. (New York: Garland
Publishing, 1985); Timothy Smith. Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism
on the Eve of the Civil War (New York: Harper and Row. 1957), 63 79, 103 147; Wacker,
"The Holy Spirit and the Spirit of the Age"; Douglas W. Frank, Less
Than Conquerors: How Evangelicals Entered the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids:
William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. 1986); Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield. Perfectionism,
Samuel G. Graig, ed., (Philadelphia: The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1958).
Ernest Becker, in his critique of modern psychoanalytic theory. asks: "How does one
lean on God and give over everything to Him and still stand on his own feet . . . ? These
are not rhetorical questions. They are real ones that go right to the heart of the problem
of "how to be a man ...." Ernest Becker, The Denial of Death (New York:
The Free Press. 1973), 259.
42 The mellowness of this idiom: Sandra Sizes. Gospel Hymns and Social
Religion (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978). 20 49.
It was not quite so easy: Howe. 18. speaks of
"intra personal competition," stressing mastery over the " 'bad passions'
within oneself." Note also David Strauss, "Toward a Consumer Culture."
American Quarterly 39 (Summer 1987). 270-286. The shift to a masculine metaphor may have
been a reaction to statistics, for women exceeded men in the population by rapidly
increasing numbers and represented by far the larger percentage of church members. Ann
Douglas. The Feminization of American Culture (New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1977),
81. See Douglas for a thorough treatment of the influence of women in mainstream churches.
43 Her lectures were
collected: The Smiths entered holiness circles through Methodist contacts and soon
found their lives redirected by William Boardman's instruction on the higher life. See
William E. Boardman, The Higher Christian Life (Boston: Henry Hoyt. 1858).
In a word: Hannah Whitall Smith. The Christian's
Secret of a Happy Life (original edition, 1870; Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H.
Revell. 1966), 28, 29, 48, 116, 143, 158.
44 The Higher Life struck many: Warfield is the best example.
Yet she was keenly aware: Her granddaughter finally
published the stories. Ray Strachey, Group Movements of the Past and Experiments in
Guidance (London: Faber and Faber Limited. 1934), 155-270.
What intrigued Frank: Hiss 67: EG, June 1-30, 1901. p.
45 The quest began:
Murray, 58 61. For a full report of that summer at Northfield, see TJ. Shanks, ed., A
College of Colleges: Led by D. L. Moody (New York: Flemina H. Revell Co., 1887).
Young leaders of the Student Volunteer Movement were Robert Wilder of Princeton and John
R. Mott of Cornell. Frank Sandford was apparently acquainted with them both. Under Mott's
guidance the SVM would flourish into "The World's Student Christian Federation"
with a membership of over 300.000 students in more than forty countries. In 1946, Mott won
the Nobel Peace Prize for his ecumenical endeavors. Ahlstrom, vol. 2., p. 343 346; Murray,
It was a consortium: Captain Butler said this of
his sailors in William Dean Howell's A Woman's Reason, quoted in Van Wick Brooks.
Each afternoon: Gold T 2, Thanksgiving 1913. p.
158. Alonzo Stagg later became famous as football coach at the University of Chicago.
Stagg Field is named for him.
45 He was the modern American: Marsden. Fundamentalism, 32 39. It was
Luther Wishard, founder of the Inter Collegiate Y.M.C.A.. who convinced Moody to hold
conferences for college students.
46 "We are willing" : Arthur T. Pierson. an evangelical leader,
writing at the end of the nineteenth century, claimed there were some 7,000 Protestant
missionaries "in every corner of the world," each with a potential parish of
300,000 souls, and that parts of the Bible had been translated into 280 languages.
Pierson. Forward Movements of the Last Half Century (New York: Funk and Wagnalls
Co.. 1900). 239-282. For a review in depth of the missionary impulse among American
Protestants. see William R. Hutchison, Errand to the World: American Protestant
Thought and Foreign Missions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).
Hanging on the wall in the auditorium was a chart depicting the proportion of heathen to
Christians in the world. Christians were represented by white squares and were far
outnumbered bv black squares. Frank longed to "change the color of that map."
46 Northfield formed:
Parker, 21 26; Stanley N. Gundry. Love Them In: The Proclamation Theology of D. L.
Moody (Grand Rapids: Baker Books. 1982). 153 160.
"Get full of the Holy Ghost!" : Shanks. 217;
Marsden, Fundamentalism. 78 79.
Maine's Old Orchard: J. S. Locke, Old Orchard,
Maine: Pen and Pencil Sketches (Boston: Groves. Locke and Co.. 1879).
47 He did not like the sound: SYWG, 7.
Simpson's work was already mature: For the
details of Simpson's life. see A. E. Thompson. The Life of A. B. Simpson (New
York: The Alliance Publishing Co.. 1920).
A widow with five children: SYWG. 7. Edward Webber
also tells this story.
48 "extravagant mysticism" : At least that is the term used by
Presbyterian B. B. Warfield. 385. n. 65. Simpson is quoted in Thompson, 247. and Warfieid.
385-386, who cites a tract by Simpson titled "Himself." The Mary Baker Eddy
quote is from Edwin Frandel Dakin. Mrs. Eddy: The Biography of a Virginal Mind
(New York: Charles Scribners's Sons. 1929), 112.
After listening thoughtfully: Frank also witnessed a healing,
sight to a blind woman. Murray. 69. He also heard at least one message by Dr. Charles
Cullis, whose work in healing pre-dated Simpson's and was well known in holiness circles.
W. H. Daniels. ed.. Dr. Cullis and His Work (Boston: Willard Tract Repository,
1885); R. Kelso Carter. The Atonement for Sin and Sickness (Boston: Willar Tract
Repository, 1884). Cullis, a medical doctor in Boston was moderate in his approach to the
subject of healing, and was reluctant to form a theory. Hannah Whitall Smith was also
cautious. She admitted ruefully that on two occasions, against her better judgment, she
had prayed successfully for the healing of people who bad begged her to do so. It
had been merely the response of "kindness" not as the demonstration of the gift
of healing. She was convinced that "one had only to do the kind thing that came
nearest to hand" and one was probably doing the will of God. Strachey. 255-257.
To its proponents supernatural healing probably seemed a safer
approach than the medical practices of the day. While greatly improved since the Civil
War, medical science floundered without an encompassing regulating force. The absence of
this "was but one reflection of the heterogeneous origins of professional expertise
and the care of the sick." Fellman and Fellman. 20.
49 her plans were radical: EG, January 1-28, 1902. p.363: Gold T,
June 1913,p. 106-107 ("Why I Love Africa"): The Christian and
Missionary Alliance Weekly, 27 December 1890. p. 395: Murray, 80-81.
As if that was not enough: Murray, 65.
"0 God. help me": SYWG, 7; Timothy Weber. Living
in the Shadow of the Second Coming: American Premillennialism, 1875-1979 (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1979), 26, 27.
It made sense: It was not until after the
Reformation that the idea of a Millennium under the rule of the returned Christ began to
be taken seriously as literal possibility. Throughout the Middle Ages the church largely
viewed the future in terms of Augustine's City of God- the body of Christian faithful who
lived in the corrupt world but were not "of it." The prophecies in the book of
Revelation were thought to be allegorical. Tuveson, ix. In America the Puritan concept of
a colony in America that would show the world by its model how God meant His people to
live became in time the nation chosen by God to lead the world into the Millennium. Prior
to the Civil War, hope in the immanent Second Advent of Christ took on concrete
dimensions, particularly in the theories of William Miller, whose calculation that Christ
would appear precisely on October 22, 1844. got national attention. Ernest R. Sandeen. The
Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism (Grand Rapids: Baker
Book House. 1970), 50 54. Embarrassed. evangelical forces cooled their pursuit
of prophetic studies until the 1870s, when the craze caught on again in Reformed
groups, and prophecy conferences became popular. Tuveson. Sandeen, and Weber treat the
subject in detail.
50 He was contented: Murray, 64.
51 He began by meeting: Murray. 68.
He was reluctant: Murray, 75 76. Hiss. 80.
That has never been stated: Letter from FWS to Mary Jane
Sandford, November 8. 1890. Frank referred later to the "old trouble I had in Great
Falls." Gold T 1, July 1913, p. 120.
52 The two men crossed the country: Murray. 79 87.
After many days: EG, January to July 1903 (Special
Edition), p. 4. Helen was the Christian and Missionary Alliance's first missionary to
He had sworn his life: SYWG, 7. He was not the first to
come to this conclusion, though the facts were rationalized in various ways. See Sandeen.
53 He fully
expected to die: Hiss, 87-88.
"passion . . . to know every nook:
54 Before reaching home: Murrav. 88.
Back at Great Falls: Hiss. 92.
55 In August of that same Year: Murray, 90 -9 1.
56 It was a literal place: For a clear summary of modern day fundamentalist views
on Armageddon. see Frances Fitzgerald. Cities on a Hill: A Journey Through
Contemporary American Cultures (New York: Simon and Schuster. 1986), 185. Hal
Lindsey's The Late Great Planet Earth (Grand Rapids. Zondervan Publishing House,
1970) gives a popular account of today's fundamentalist presuppositions regarding the end
of the world.
Prophecy buffs parted company: Pierson. 413 420.
as a growing number: Sandeen. 178: Weber, 41; Handy,
113. Paul's quote is from II Timothy 3:1 13.
57 Now, at this
moment: EG, June 1 30. 1901, M 178, and SYWG, 8; Hiss, 94; Murray 92, 94.
That struggle was part: EG, January 15 28. 1902, p. ,
363. Years later Frank wrote, "She had felt so certain of her call, that she was much
perplexed . . . that I was not likewise called. and years of disappointment had
followed." EG, January to July, 1903 (Special Edition), p. 5.
58 Her instant reply: Murray. 94 96.
God whispered the word "Go!": SYWG, 8.
Pages 59 to 75
59 In January of 1893: Murray, 100-101. Honey Grove was near Sherman, Texas.
Letters to Mary Jane Sandford from FWS, February 7 and March 2, 1893, and from Helen
Sandford. April 8. 1893.
60 But to his consternation: SYWG, 52, and Gold T 3, March 1915, p. 310; Murray,
"with a glad bound": Gold T 1, July 1913.
61 One out of every three Americans: Howe, 3 9; Latzer Ziff, The 4merican 1890's.
Life and Times of a Lost Generation (New York: The Viking Press, 1966), 341-344.
The hill towns of Maine: Barron, 35-41.
Frank knew the "barnyard idyll": Others knew, too.
"Perhaps nowhere in the world can be found a more unlovely wickedness . . than in New
England," wrote Henry Ward Beecher. "The good are very good and the bad are very
bad." Beecher, Norwood: Village Life in New England (New York: Charles
Scribner and Co.1868), 4.
62 Frank set up weekly meetings: He was also preaching for R. A.
Torrey's Christian Workers Conventions in Rochester and Syracuse. New York. and in
"the very off scouring": SYWG, 11.
"My wife was dying to": Ibid.
63 "Why, you treat me better. . . .": Gold T 3. October 1914 p.275.
"unable to touch the people." SYWG, 9.
The week did not go well: Murray, 106 108.
64 "strikingly peculiar audience": SYWG. 9.
Again and again these were men: One of the converts was
Carrie Kendall's father. J. Madison Kendall, 94 years old, a wealthy patriarch of
Bowdoinham, who gave up a sixtyfive year "terbaccer" habit on the spot, and
delighted future audiences by shouting "Glory!" in the middle of meetings.
Frank, like Moody, had never preached: Marsden. Fundamentalism,
131-132. See Van Wyck Brooks. 15. 122. Though Maine, thoroughly Republican and anti rum,
was the first state to go officially "dry" (1846), alcoholism was an on going
problem. In 1893 Federal authorities collected internal revenue taxes from 161
Portland liquor dealers. Arthur M. Schlesinger. Political and Social Growth of the
American People. 1865-1940 (New York: The Macmillan Co.. 1941). 1973.
65 "How he did preach!": TF2. July 1896. p. 93ff. He preached the old
Protestant Republican verities: temperance. honesty, honoring the Sabbath. The people who
listened had come from nests lined with those values, which they saw indeed as
specifically Protestant, along with their distrust of Catholic immigrants.
In the snowy months that followed: Frank
suffered acutely from any criticism. Murray says he shared with the rest of the Sandford
family what might be called an intense reaction to environment: the slightest criticism .
. . would hurt them cruelly." Murray, 117. SYWG, 12.
66 The idea of Spirit baptism: It was a leading topic at the Washington D.C.
convention of the Evangelical Alliance for the United States in 1887. Wacker, "The
Holy Spirit and the Spirit of the Age," 45. See also Donald Dayton. "The
Theological Roots of Pentecostalism."
Pneuma I (Spring 1980), p.3-21. Helen's experience is described in The Christian
Missionary Alliance Weekly, December 27, 1890. p. 395. For Moody's experience, see
Marsden, Fundamentalism, 78, 248 no. 27. Sandford had "received" the
Holy Spirit while at Northfield. but he doubted that he had been "filled." TF 1,
September 1895. p.2-3; EG, June 1 -30, p. 177
One day on the local train: SYWG, 11.
67 Many people were in a shabby period: For a description of this chaotic
period. see Jaher, 37-43.
Following Merritt's lead: TF 1. September 1895. p. 2.
68 There were 250 closed churches: TF 1. January 1895. p.5 and TF 3, August 1897,
The Kinneys provided a tent: TF 2, January 1. 1897. p. 4
-12, for a full history of the schoolhouse and tent ministry.
He was a rugged: TF 1, January 1895, p. 10: LEJ 27
January 1900. and 20 June 1896: Jenney Booker, interview. (Booker is Douglas's niece.)
In the weeks that followed: Murray, 128 129.
TONGUES OF FIRE: TF, January 1895. p. 9. and February 1895, p.
69 The April issue: Matthew 6:33 "Seek ye first the kingdom of God and
all these things shall
be added unto you." TF March 1895, p. 10.
"If you are willing to live": Ibid.
70 He had already offended the local: He had also offended Bates College by
scolding the divinity students for spending so much time playing ball (Murray. 129), a
peculiar commentary from a former student who attributed much of his spiritual growth to
sports. Murray reports a conversation Frank had with God about this time. Hearing the
words "New wine, new bottles," he "finally asked God this question: 'What
do you mean, Lord? Do you mean that you want this work to have nothing to do with the
labors of others?' " The answer came as if "the Spirit had said, 'You know
well enough that is exactly what I mean." Murray, 129.
Meanwhile, the Quakers: LEJ. 20 June 1896.
Charles Mann: The Lisbon Enterprise, undated clippings.
71 all of these institutions: Joel A. Carpenter, "Fundamentalist
Institutions and the Rise of Evangelical Protestantism, 1929 1942." Church
History 49 (March 1980), 66. Once again, Charles Cullis was probably responsible for
the first "Bible institute," with his Faith Training
College incorporated in 1875 in Boston. Daniels. 359.
It fazed him not in the least: TF, October 15.
1899, V. 299. Willard had heard the "Voice
of the Lord" whisper Some better thing" while in Lubec. Ibid.
They came from surrounding towns: Murray. 142. The list is
somewhat fluid since some of the students came and went. My list excludes some names and
includes others who joined in the spring.
72 This was not a conventional school: Hiss, 74-75, 121-123.
"The book of Revelation and
Zecheriah have been opened as if by magic. . . . We have got out knowledge not from
commentators or human wisdom. . . . but from the One of which Daniel spoke . . .
'there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets. " TF2, March 1896, p. 42.
A combination of factors are at work here: the belief that Scripture truth is unchanging
at the same time that it is available to the honest, Spirit led seeker, and the naive
expectation that therefore sound Christians will arrive at the same conclusions. The
intricacies of these theories are explored by Nathan 0. Hatch and George Marsden in The
Bible in America: Essays in Cultural History, Nathan 0. Hatch and Mark A. Noll. eds.,
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 59 99. and by Noll. "Evangelicals and the
Study of the Bible," in Evangelicals and Modern America, George Marsden,
ed., (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1984), 103-121. Noll calls
attention to "a perverse kind of authoritarianism, in which a leader claiming to have
no guide but the Bible rigidly imposes his form of scriptural interpretation on followers
who likewise profess to be heeding no guide but the Bible." Ibid..119. See also Mead.
109-111, and Richard Hofstadter, Anti-intellectualism in American Life (New York:
Alfred A. Knopf, 1963), 55-80.
All participated: The students saw converts by the
dozens. The end of the year was celebrated by a moonlight baptism in the river at Iceboro
(appropriately named under the circumstances) during the second full moon of the month. a
phenomenon that had not taken place since the birth of Christ.
"bashful, timid boys and girls": TF, March 15. 1896, 42.
73 "If the Divine Master": Hannah Whitall Smith, 139, 164.
Frank had written a hymn: Hiss. 97; Warrior Songs of the
White Cavalry (Amherst, N.H.: The Kingdom Press, 1951), No. 293.
Biblical language of armed conflict: Sometimes the rhetoric
took off to the sky. Wrote an early co-worker: "Keep fighting on, and draw on
Headquarters for all supplies; watch the picket lines, put on the whole armour of God and
never go on dress parade; keep your sword bright, follow Jesus and victory is His." TF
1, 1895, p.5. Among Evangelicals at large, the spirit of warfare was justified as the
defense of the faith. A. J. Gordon, an irenic man. once said, "Better the church
militant battling for the truth than the church complaisant surrendering the truth for the
sake of peace. The Prince of Peace is a man of war . . . ... " Ernest B. Gordon,
Adoniram Judson Gordon (New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1896), 192.
Pages 77 to 95
77 Early in 1896: Murray, 139 143.
More than a hundred years back: Durham was incorporated
as Royalsborough (a fact not lost on Sandford later) in 1789.
78 For data on Holman Day, see Ivan Cecil Sherman. "The Life and Work of Holman
Francis Day.M.A. Thesis, University of Maine, 1943. Though Day went on to write several
novels and many short stories, he never used Sandford as a character," a
"tribute," says Hiss, since Day s humor was often biting. Hiss. 128. For Day's
early contacts with Frank, out of which these pages are drawn, see LEJ, 20 June and 6 July
1896. as well as 27 February 1897 and 18 July 1899.
Day had not come to: Holman F. Day. "The Saints of
Shiloh." Leslie's Magazine 101 April 1905), pp. 682 691.
80 The paper's readers: LEJ, 7 July 1897. Throughout this research back issues of
The Lewiston Sun have been largely inaccessible. as they were being microfilmed.
81 After a picnic,: Already carved on the marble of the cornerstone was the
Scripture: "Built upon the Foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ
Himself being the Chief Corner Stone. Eph. 2:20." It was lowered onto a new Bible.
which Frank had inscribed: "The Holy Ghost and Us Bible School will be TRUE Lord. to
your book. wherever you may send them. Murray, 144 147.
82 those two prophets: Tongues of Fire (August 1, 1896, 109)
83 Frank announced to the school: TF. September, 5, 1896. 133 134.
"I am not going to run after money" : Murray. 307:
"I had always preached boldly": SYWG, 20, 21.
Murray, 148 149.
84 "We lacked boards for the floor": LEJ, 27 February 1897. Day reviews
in this story the events of the previous year.
On the day of dedication: TF, October 15. 1896. 3.
85 "It requires not my assurance": LEJ, 27 February 1897.
"At midnight on the eve": TF, January 1. 1897.
"He had 'no use..." : LEJ, 27 February
1897: TF, March 1, 1897, p. 44.
86 Caroline Holland wrote up: TF, March 15, 1897. p. 47.
87 "I never saw such a man as you" Hiss. 115 116, 139. 164, TF,
February 15, 1897, pp. 29. 30.
88 A. B. Simpson, learning that: Murray, 191, 925 n. 3.
89 Then why did they come?: Hiss. 143 161.
"a sense of spiritual safety". Ibid. Murray. Admittedly
not an impartial judge, Murray says. "Only in this man of God's presence could one
begin to sense the thrill of holiness, the intense longing to be good that took possession
of people who came near him." Murray. 9.
He spoke often of "reckless" faith: TF, March
15. 1897. p. 49. Later he wrote. "How many
times I have thanked God that He never started me on some cheap religion . . ."
January 15 18, 1902, p. 362.
90 "If you go on with God, you :" TF, March 15, 1897. p. 50.
"The last reference to John:" TF,
April 15. 1897. pp. 63 64.
91 "The world may never know": LE, n.d.
"He has used godless editors": TF, May
15, 1897, V. 77.
92 "This is how much I care about wealth..." : Murray, 13. 112
"I was as certain of it then..." TF,
January 1, 1897, P. 2.
"The wail goes up": LE, n.d.
In praying for this: Hiss, 176; Murray. 197 203.
93 In fairness to Frank: Marsden. Fundamentalism, 38; McLaughlin, Revivals,
Hudson, 231; Eerdmans' Handbook, 280 293.
If Holman Day was beginning: LEJ, 3 July 1897.
At 1:00 PM on July 4, 1897: TF, July 15. 1897. pp.
94 The building glowed: TF, June 15, 1897, pp. 95 96 Whether or not gold
actually used in the leaf on the dome and crown, it soon became the practice of the
in Sandford's following to be unadorned even by wedding rings, many of which were turned
into the common treasury to be sold for cash. Arnold White and Merlyn Bartlett
White, memoirs and interviews.
Of particular significance: TF, August 15, 1897, 125 138.
Murray, 160 161. "The sceptre shall not depart..." is Genesis 49:10. The
name was used by other movements. See Robert
S. Fogarty, Righteous Remnant. The House of David (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University
1981). The House of David was a sect in Michigan in the early part of the twentieth
which held many parallels to Sandford's work.
95 It was Willard: LEJ, 26 November 1897.
At midnight: Over the years the ritual
of prayer in the turret became more complicated.
As Merlyn Bartlett remembered it, only virgins were permitted on the roster. They must not
be menstruating and must be dressed in their best clothes, clean, mended, with their
right with God.
Pages 97 to 109
97 The year 1898 began: Murray covers the events in this chapter on pages
When converts gathered: TF, January 15, 1898, pp. 9 12.
98 "Boston Next": TF, February 1. 1898, p. 17: The Boston
story is told in TF, March 1.
1898. pp. 33 36.
Frank would rather have faced: Schlesinger
quotes Donahoe's Magazine in 1889: "Boston
is no longer the Boston of the Endicotts and the Winthrops, but . . . the Collinses and
O'Brians." Schlesinger. 254. Like many other rural people, Frank had grown up with a
suspicion of Roman Catholic immigrants, an attitude deliberately fostered by certain
leaders. The Free Baptist Morning Star, November 9, 1893, claimed "America is a
country and will remain so to the end."
Actually the city was full of religion: Jaher 44 47; Brooks,
the "old Emersonian pass of the hand" Gordon. 16,
133; Brooks, 331, 335 337.
99 "The Battle with the Giants" TF, March 1, 1898, p. 35.
Inside the five story brownstone: LEJ, 6
According to one suburban newspaper: The Lynn
Item, quoted in the LE., n.d.
On the last Saturday: TF, March 1. 1898. p. 36.
100 The country responded: Hiss. 180 187; Handy, 125 128; Schlesinger, 271
tantamount to a debt: It was for $12,000, a
monumental prospect at the time. EG, August
7-31. 1902, p. 441.
"the church all of gold": TF, March 1.
1898, p. 36.
An architect had been hired: LEJ, 27 December
"Jerusalem Next": TF, May 15. 1898, p. 73,
101 Willard Gleason climbed: TF, June 1, 1898, p. 81 82. Their banter in
the train is quoted
in Murray, 180.
102 The paper began with a direct statement: Later published in TF, September 1, 1898, pp.
129-135. Murray, 185 187.
"What Sandford failed to acknowledge:" Charles A. L.
Totten, Our Race: Its Origin and
Destiny, A Series of Studies on the Anglo Saxon Riddle, vol. I (New Haven: Our Race
Publishing Company, 1891). xix, 30 32. 1 am indebted to Hiss for the discussion of
Totten's theories. Hiss. 165 171. Murray says that Frank first heard of the Anglo
Israel connection from a collegue in 1896.
103 Herman Melville had written: Martin Marty quotes Melville in Righteous
Kingdom, 146. For a study of American attitudes toward Zionism. see Peter Grose, Israel in
the Mind of America, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983).
Hadn't the Anglo Saxon: Totten's ideas were
not original to him either. Some dated back to the Middle Ages. See Tuveson. "Chosen
Race . . . Chosen People," in Redeemer Nation, 137 186.
104 Protestant leader Josiah Strong: A Congregationalist, Strong was the
secretary of the denomination's Home Missionary Society and not a proponent of Sandford's
brand of millenarianism. He claimed that the Kingdom of God would realized through the
perfection and power of Anglo Saxon civilization. an "optimistic" view not
shared by premillennialists. Tuveson, 137 138; Mead. 153: C. Howard Hopkins. The Rise
of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism, 1865 1915 (New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1967), 100.
Even those who deplored war: See Handy.
"The Christian Conquest of the World. in .4 Christian 4merica. 117 154. The McKinley
quote is in Ahlstrom. vol. 2, pp. 361 362. as is "cross to follow the flag." See
also Marsden. "Evangelicals. History and Modernity." in Evangelicals and
Modern America. 94 102.
No one was more patriotic: Hiss says that Frank
had always associated the idea of a
"small army of pure Christians" with the "core of the restored Israel"
and had long been
intrigued by Scripture suggesting that Israel would once more lead the world. TF. January
5. 1899, p. 23 24. Sandford's position is explained in Joseph B. Harriman, Israel and
World Crisis (Mt. Vernon. New Hampshire: The Kingdom Press, 1952). and in Victor P.
Abram, The Restoration of All Things (Amherst. New Hampshire: The Kingdom Press.
God must still use Israel: Late in 1902,
when British gun ships opened fire on a Venezuelan fort because the English flag had been
"insulted," Shiloh considered it "evident" that God was
"defending the banners of His people Israel even though as a nation they are . . .
unsaved and unrestored." EG, November 1 to December 1. 1902, p. 502.
105 Shiloh of Durham, Maine, U.S.A.: TF. September 1. 1898, p. 129 135: EG,
September 1-30, 1902, p. 470.
To the new enrollment: TF. September 15. 1898. 140
and February 15, 1899. pp. 51 54; Hiss, 189.
106 "He wants you to be so true" : TF, January 1. 1899. p.
"Commence tomorrow" :
TF, October 15. 1898. p. 144; Murray, 193 196.
107 "Well, Brother Gleason" : Hiss. 191.
"all around the black horizon" :
LEJ, 24 August 1898.
Pages 111 to 124
111 "As a lion": TF, January 1. 1899, p. 12.
The first skirmish: Murray 203-213. For
Shiloh's social life, see EG, March 17-30. 1901.
113 "Spiritual ambition" : TF, March 1. 1899, p. 67-69.
Healing itself was hardly new: Holman Day's
headlines announced that 41 had testified
to healing in 1896. LEJ, 6 July 1896. At least two of these entailed relief from
one a woman who gave up a twenty five year laudanum habit (opium in wine. available
without prescription in pharmacies). After one meeting at Shiloh, Day wrote of many who
"testified on their honor that they had been healed of disease by Sandford, naming
the complaint and calling on neighbors present to corroborate their statements." Day,
"The Saints of Shiloh."
Leslie's, p. 686.
Now scarcely an issue: For example. TF,
February 15, 1898, pp 27 29. Sandford gave
fifteen pages of his fifty five page autobiography to healing cases. SYWG, 33 48.
The same curious: Dakin. 220-221.
114 Nomenclature aside: The healing stories are found in TF, September 1,
1897. pp. 141-142
and SY1VG, Ibid. These were repeatedly told. The story of Emma Whittemore is in SYWG
and TF, November 15. 1898 p. 5, 173. Whittemore was well known in holiness circles. Her
work had gone on tor ten years before she visited Shiloh. Donald Dayton, Discovering
an Evangelical Heritage (New York: Harper and Row, 1976), 116. She printed 5,000
copies of a tract telling the story of her healing at Shiloh (SYWG, 43). However, a record
of her life includes a photo taken some vears later, in which she is wearing spectacles. Mother
Whittemore's Records of Modern Miracles, F.A. Robinson, ed., (Toronto, Canada: 1947).
115 But Sandford's view: Healing is discussed in the following Tongues
of Fire issues: April 1, 1896: March 1, 1897: February 15, 1898; April 15, 1898;
April 1, 1899; December 15, 1899, RP 198-208 (a long sermon on the topic).
John Alexander Dowie: Dowie had
founded the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion, Illinois, in 1896. His magazine
was Leaves of Healing. Sandford had heard him preach twice and had mentioned him
once or twice in Tongues of Fire, including March 1. 1897. p. 43: "Dr. Dowie
oi Chicago prays with or for as many as 70,000 sick people a year, and thousands of the
most astounding and remarkable miracles have taken place." In time. Dowie's
tabernacle in Zion City was called Shiloh. For more on Dowie, see Grant Wacker, "Marching
to Zion: Religion in a Modern Utopian Community," Church History 54 (December
1985), p. 496.
116 lately, Sandford had been saying: TF, December 15, 1897, p. 200.
In contrast: Pierson. 296, quotes a
medical missionary. Though A. B. Simpson "never spoke disparagingly of human
physicians," according to one source (see Thompson, 262), his followers believed it a
compromise to resort to modern medical practices. For a summarv of attitudes toward divine
healing among various religious groups, see Ronald L. Numbers and Darrell W. Amundsen,
eds., Caring and Curing: Health and Medicine in the Western Religious Traditions
(New York: Macmillan Co.. 1986). For certain present day approaches, see Stanley Haverwas,
"God, Medicine. and Evil," The Reformed Journal 38 (April 1988), 16-22.
In another year Sandford would say: TF,
February 15, 1898, pp. 27, 28, and April 1, 1899, pp. 97-112, an entire issue
devoted to this subject.
he had met Satan head on: His mother, Mary Jane, had been
relieved of sciatica when Frank cast out the demon he thought was causing it. LEJ,
20 June 1896; TF, August 1. 1897, pp 115- 121, gives a "history" of
Holman Day was also finding: LEJ, 3 July
117 "The devil finally departed." No further
explanation is made. This is the only record I am aware of for the
It was called a "Charge."
: TF, April 1, 1899, (p. 109; Gold T 1. May 1913, p. 101. Hiss.
As one student described it. EG,
January 29 to February 2, 1901, p. 51.
One Lewiston Journal reporter: LEJ,
6 January 1900.
A visiting listener: E. P. Woodward, Sandfordism:
An Exposure of the Claims, Purposes, Methods, Predictions and Threats of Frank Sandford,
the "Apostle" to Shiloh, Maine Wortland, Maine: Safeguard Publishing Co.,
1902), 90-92. Woodward, a Baptist clergyman in Portland, wrote critical stories of Shiloh
between 1899 and 1902, when they were gathered into a
118 Willard Gleason, holding the fort at Elim: TF, April 15,
1898, p. 58: Hiss. 174, 175.
119 where the "oppressed" might get away: TF, July
1, 1898, p. 97.
Now the order "Complete it": Hiss,
194. The story of Bethesda is covered in TF, April 1, 1899, pp. 29-112 and
Murray, 197-203; LEJ, 16 and 20 March 1899.
At the end of March: The story of erecting
the Extension is told in TF, May 1 and
May 15, 1899: Hiss. 204-220; LEJ, 18 July, and 1, 12, 18 August 1899.
Sandford wrestled the old blue wheelbarrow:
One of the few who stayed to help was George Higgins, a Methodist itinerant preacher who
had been tarred and feathered in Aroostook County for preaching Shiloh's message. LEJ,
7 June 1899; TF, June 15, 1899, p. 191 -193.
122 "Order the lumber sawed": Murray, 19, 29: LEJ,
12 August 1899.
123 "a hybrid of a Maine resort": Hiss, 214. The mail
load had become so heavy that Shiloh
had gotten Federal permission to set up its own post office. A small building for this
was constructed at the bottom of the hill on the River Road.
124 Strange Scenes: The New York Times published a series of
ridiculous items on the Extension dedication. One headline referring to "The Holy
Ghost and Me." NYT 18, 19, 21, 23, 25 August. 1899.
Pages 125 to 136
125 Olive Mill's story: Murray. 219-220:
Hiss. 229-230: SYWG. 49 50: LEJ, 29 November 1899.
126 Two davs after the adventure: LEJ, 25 August 1899.
HOLYGHOST CAMP 0UTRAGE: LEJ, 24
August 1899: NYT. 23 August 1899. The next day a long editorial titled "Sanford and
His Dupes" deplored the harm Shiloh was doing to the Christian faith. NYT, 24 August
1899. This was followed by a letter from a reader on 25 August suggesting that if God was
"behind" Sandford's methods, then "God is a devil."
127 He was not at all amazed: LEJ. 25 August 1899.
C. S. Weiss. Sandfardism Exposed: A Warning
and a Protest (Lisbon Falls, Maine: privately published. 1899). Quotes from Weiss are
drawn from pages 39, 42, 54, 56, 39, 64, 67, 155 had already dismissed: LEJ, 6
128 He left for England: The story of Frank's encounter with
Eliza Leger is covered in Hiss, 230-235; Murray, 221-227. TF, November 13 to
December 1, 1899, p. 344.
130 To make matters worse: Weiss, in his expose, claimed that
of the $20.000, not much more than $7,000 had actually come in, and that Sandford had
practiced deception in the name of faith. A day or two later when the roofer asked for
$400, "most urgent prayers" were offered for that amount. Weiss, 62. Perhaps it
was Weiss's account that aroused suspicion among the students, but E. P. Woodward claimed
(in articles he was writing now and in his book published in 1902) that at the time the
Extension was dedicated a debt of $520,000 hung over Sandford's head, and that a writ was
served by a sheriff on the property on November 23, 1899.
In the depths of that quandary: EG. September
21 to October 21. 1901, pp. 259, 260,
131 That Lamb was bound...: SYWG, 53, 54.
133 Laying his hands: Hiss. 236, TF 5. Christmas 1899, pp. 346-347.
It was not the turn of the century: Note NYT,
22 July 1899 ("When Shall We Greet the New Era?"). The discussion continued in
"The strongest character": Hiss, 237,
Pages 137 to 153
137 "Razooing": 15 January 1900.
Stories of God's provision: LEJ,
4 February 1900.
"What, going to
walk?" Hiss. 238-239.
138 Sandford wrote a book: The serialization began in the
February issue of Tongues of Fire.
a public declaration:
139 More immediately practical matters: TF, January 1, 1900, p. 353:
LEJ, 13 August 1900. Durham was
concerned about : Hiss, 243.
Those anxieties might have grown: LEJ,
27 January 1900. 167
Boston was now being called: Sandford
and others held a series of well attended meetings in Boston in opulent Corinthian Hall at
the corner of Tremont and Boylston Streets early in the winter. LEJ, 9 Februarv 1900.
140 "He felt a 'premonition', he has written
Sandford" : TF, November 1, 1897, p. 175.
God said "Go west". Murray, 230 233; Hiss, 245 251.
teens: N. H. Harriman and Joseph B. Harriman. Shiloh As It Is (Durham,
Maine: Shiloh Bible School, 1904), 51-55.
141 The "Tacoma Party": TF, July 1 to 15, 1900. p.
According to the Seattle Post Intelligencer:
LEJ, 22 January 1900; Ibid.. 28 June 1900.
All he meant: TF, ibid.
142 At Shiloh an elaborate welcome: LEJ, 22 June 1900.
Harriman was thrilled with the place:,
Harriman was equally distressed: TF.
Aulzust 1. 1900.,p. 129-135; LEJ. 26 May 1904: Hiss. 231-252.
143 Throughout the summer: TF, September 1. 1900, 150: EG, January
8. 1901, pp. 18-19.
"and behold a white horse" :
On the contrary: Hiss. 257; TF,
August 15, 1900. pp. 146-147.
144 To complicate matters: LEJ, 3 February 1904 and 6 October 1905.
He was "disfellowshipped" for
twenty-five hours: LEJ. 5 February 1904: The newspaper reference is the account of
one trial of the manslaughter case, as is a public document. A transcript of the same
trial, [henceioreth identified as TrTr]. Trial Transcript. State of Maine v.
Frank W. Sandford. Supreme Judicial Court, Franklin County, May term, 1904. pp. 165.
196 (Transcript filed at the Androscoggin County Historical Society).
A doctor was called: LEJ, 15 September
On Septernher 24, one year: EG,
September 21 to October 21, 1901. p. 260. In one memory of this experience, Frank looked
up across the Shiloh buildings in the distance, and it was as if God had written a word
above them: "Conquerors!" Sandford, The Art of War for the Christian Soldier
(original edition. 1900-01; Amherst, New Hampshire: The Kingdom Press, 1966), 7.
145 Something else was at issue: Among the recent excellent studies on the
Dayton's summary. "The Evangelical Roots of Feminism." in Discovering an
Heritage, 85-98, is one of the most helpful. For extensive coverage see Women in
Religion 1800-1930, a 36, volume reprint collection edited by Carolyn D. Swarte
published by Garland Publishing, 1986. Woman's expanded role began during the Second
Great Awakening in the early part of the century, and continued to be promoted in
circle of influence, certainly by A. B. Simpson and Hannah Whitall Smith (who for some
now had been working actively as a feminist). But the equality of earlier evangelicalism
been recently losing power, the shift toward submission reflecting both a Victorian
class tendency to simultaneously idealize and control both women and religion, and an
accelerated move toward a mind set which would produce twentieth century Fundamentalism,
with a less flexible posture in many matters, including Apostle Paul's injunctions
the behavior of women in the churches. See I Corinthians 14:34. Marsden, Fundamentalism,
80, 83, 250.
Since yielding in her argument with
Sandford: TF, September 1, 1900. pp. 160-164; LEJ, 10 December, 1904. See
Rosemary Ruether and Eleanor McLaughlin, Women of Spirit: Female Leadership in the
Jewish and Christian Traditions (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979), particularly p.
16-28 and 225-254; and Douglas, Feminization, for some of the subtleties involved
in the self identity of women in the church; also, Margaret Bendroth in Evangelicals and
Modern America, 122-124,
she and Sandford had published a tract: Moses Leger, who
printed the tract, revealed Sandford as source for part of it. LEJ. 10 December
146 As the fall convention began: Hiss. 25,. 269: EG, September
1-14. 1901. 239-243. (The article quoted is identified as "Sermon preached by Mr.
Sandford a year ago  at the opening of the September
convention at Shiloh.") Sandford declared that the idea of the obedience of women at
Shiloh was not his own idea. It was presented to him by the women themselves, and that it
"humbled" him "in the dust." Ibid. While he had never questioned the
leadership of women, he had also held a romantic concept of womanhood. The characteristic
he most admired in women. he bad stated as a young man, was "Self sacrifice clothed
in modesty." Edward Webber, Sandford family records.
147 "I expected to find authority": SAII 58-59.
No one was using the word
"infallible": Except Nathan Harriman, who acknowledged that Sandford
would not allow the word to be used, but that "Found perfect" nevertheless
"means that he is infallible in his conduct and words." LEJ. 26 September 1903.
The words exquisite order" are in SAII 4-9.
148 Sandford honestly believed: Neither Hiss nor Murray draw the same
specific inference from this series of events and circumstances.
preached to the school on Song of Solomon:
Samuel Sandmel. The Hebrew Scriptures: An Introduction to Their Literary and Religious
Ideas (New York: Oxford University Press. 1978). 310-318. For Puritan Joseph Cotton's
understanding of the book, see Eerdmans' Handbook. 83. Hiss. 85.
"Turn thine eyes away": TF.
June 15. 1899. pp. 190-193.
"going to your own funeral day by day": Ibid.
149 The event was intricately planned: LEJ, 5 February 1904: TrTr. 179:
Hiss. 260-261: Murray, 234-235.
152 When the . . . test was over: TF, October 1-15, 1900. 173: TrTr.
175-197. "An eternal excellency!" EG, September 21 to October 21, 1901,
p. 260. Dean Kelley notes that in the history of "high demand" religious groups,
members tend to make an adjustment in which they accept responsibility to conform, and if
they "find themselves out of step, they do not blame the group." Dean M. Kelley,
Why Conservative Churches Are Growing: A Study in Sociology of Religion (New
York: Harper and Row, 1972), 141. Kelley's theories correspond at many points with
attitudes at Shiloh.
153 As the year 1900 drew to a close: Murray 236-238; EG, January 1,
1901. p. 4; January 8. 1901. p. 14, and August 1-31, 1901, p. 229-232. Sandford presented
another painting to the school. The Fergusons had re-created Elizabeth Butler's "The Charge of the Scots Greys at Waterloo."
To Sandford it represented the spirit of the "White Cavalry." The Maine
Campaign: EG, January 29 to February 2, 1901. p. 54-57.
Pages 155 to 168
155 "Every day was something" : EG, December
22 to January 1. 1902. p.336.
"to be living in the
millenial age" : Art of War, 37.
Sandeen. 62-64, 100-102, 210-214; Marsden. Fundamentalism, 46-71. Scripture used
as basis for the "Rapture": I Corinthians 15:51. 52 and I Thessalonians 4:15-16.
The infatuation with Dispensationalism, says Douglas Frank, was part of the evangelical
effort to regain control in a church that had lost its power. Frank, 68-75. Dispensational
theories are included in full in the "Schofield Bible," handbook of
Dispensational proponents since early in the century, the King James version of Scripture
with interpretive notes by C. I. Schofield, published by Oxford University Press. The
first edition appeared in 1909.
156 the new terrible time had already begun: Hiss, 72-73.
"The day of vengeance": See Isaiah 61:2. " . . . to preach the acceptable
year of the Lord, and the day of vengeance of our God." When Jesus read these words
aloud at the beginning of his ministry (Luke 4:19), he stopped before day of
vengeance." TF, November 1, 15, 1900, p. 185; EG, February 3. 16, 1901, p. 74 75.
Pessimism was being expressed by many in society. See Horton and Edwards, 246-261.
"The Daily Trend of World Wide Events":
EG, November 1 to December 31, 1902 through January 8 to 15, 1901.
157 Measures to prevent itwere useless: EG, January 8-15, 190
p. 23. Frank was referring to members of the Evangelical Alliance, who were, in his
opinion, running counter to God's will. "The Son of God is saying, 'Nation shall rise
up against nation' while the Evangelical Alliance is
praying that they may not."
defined as the 'Social Gospel':
Howard C. Hopkins, The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism, 1865-1915 (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 1967), 203-215: Handy, 163-167; McLoughlin, 162-178:
Marsden, Fundamentalism, 85-93. For the 'fundamentals" of the faith:
Marsden, 118-123, 227. An extensive "inside" look at
the rise of the American fundamentalist movement is available in Fundamentalism in
Religion, 1880-1950, (Joel A. Carpenter, ed.) 45 vols. (New York: Garland Publishing,
1987) gross error:
Murray, 232. 927 n. 14. Parham thought of his ministry (The Apostolic Faith Movement) as
also ushering in primitive, first century Christianity under a new Pentecost (the
"latter day rain") preceding the return of Christ. See Grant Wacker. "Are
the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing: Reflections on History Writing Among Early
Pentecostals," Pneuma (Fall. 1986, 81-100. Pages 88-90 compare
Sandford and Parham.
For full treatments of Parham and the
origins of the Pentecostal movement, Edith Blumhofer,
The Assemblies or God to 1941: A Chapter in the Study of American Pentecostalism,
(Springfield. Illinois: Gospel Publishing House, 1989). The history of Pentecostalism has
burgeoned since I began this research. Most studies can be found in Stanley M. Burgess and
Gary B. McGee. eds., Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements (Grand
Zondervan Publishing House, 1988). Note particularly the work of Vinson Syrian and David
The initial phenomenon of tongues at Parham's school occurred on 1
January 1901. The LEJ, 6 January 1900, carries a report of Shiloh's New Year's Eve prayer
and praise service, which lasted from until midnight, following ten days of prayer:
"The gifts of tongues has descended." At one point in the service Sandford was
astonished to find 120 people present, the number gathered at the first Pentecost in the
book of Acts. But whatever happened at Shiloh on 31 December 1900, Sandford insisted (to
the newspaper) that "Speaking in tongues" meant foreign tongues, not
158 The "Jerusalem Twelve": EG, June 1-30, 1901. p.
184-186; Murray, 246-247; Hiss, 281. About the time Shiloh began to think seriously about
who was to embark for Jerusalem, a fire in Lisbon Falls leveled the business district.
Shiloh men volunteered in fighting it, while Sandford prayed that the headquarters of his
enemy, Charles Mann of the Lisbon Enterprise, would be spared. Sure enough, the building
that housed his printing equipment remained unharmed. LEJ, 6 April 1901 and 1 December
1902: LE, n.d.
Sandford stood at the point: EG, September
1-30, 1902. p. 471: Hiss. 283-284.
159 On June 19: EG, June 1 30, 1901. pp. 186-189.
"never known a fiercer
conflict": Murray 284 285, EG, September 1 14, 1901. pp. 236- 237; TrTr,
"Once in England": TrTr,
168-170; LEJ, 25 May 1904.
160 Nathan Harriman himself: Ibid., and 6 October 1905;
TrTr., 165. For King Saul's evil spirit, see I Samuel 28.
161 One warm night: EG, September 1-14, 1901, p.
"100 fold warriors" :
EG, September 21 to October 21, 1901. p. 359.
162 Such an arrangement was hardly new: It came first from the
parable of the seed. Matthew 13. As an example of one recent use, the Salvation Army ran a
farm colony in 1898 with thirty one houses managed by the "hundred fold method"
homes for the poor who are willing to work." Pierson, 353.
the church as a three level concept:
The metaphor he used was the seven branched candlestick of Exodus, each part interacting
as the whole, "malleable, capable of being pounded into any shape." Four issues
of EG are dedicated to the subject, from September 21 to October 21, 1901 through
December 13 to January 1, 1902.
"restored and authoritative baptism
": EG, October 22 to November 1. 1901. p. 279 284.
"God is here": EG,
September 21 to October 21. 1901. p. 276. He showed no recognition of repeating the
already oft repeated practice of "anabaptism" - rebaptism - a rite
signifying independence from the status quo, at times punishable as a crime. Ahlstrom.
vol. I. 122, 123, 290.
163 " the old dead snake of denominationalism" :
Weiss. 19. Once again he was repeating a familiar history, and this time he acknowledged
it. John Wesley, Mexander Campbell, Orestes Brownson, Arno Gaebelein, Jemima Wilkinson to
name both brighter and lesser stars, all denied sectarianism. Their intent was catholic,
to restore the unity of the true church.
Girl Dragged Screaming to the Icy Bay:
NYT, 14 November 1901: LEJ, 14 November 1901. The editorial is quoted in
Woodward. 102. Some wore scanty best clothes for baptism, even in cold weather. But Mary
Campbell, baptized in a later year on Thanksgiving Day, wore so many layers her
"undervest did not get wet. There was more of a problem for the baptizer, who stood
in icy water for long stretches of time.
164 Elijah was too important: I Kings 17-19 and II Kings 1-2.
Sandmel. 213-214. 458-460.
Sandford had been making connections: TF, May 15 to June 1. 1900. 96. Notice Matthew
17:11, 12; Mark 9:11-13; Malachi 4:5-6.
"'Elijah is here"': Murray,
190-195; Hiss. 291-296: EG. November 12 to December 12. 1901. p. 308-315, and December 13
to January 1. 1902. p. 325-335.
165 The experience of the Second Elijah: Ibid; also Abram.
"I have a feeling of
ease": EG, November 12 to December 12. 1901. p. 314.
Dowie: NYT, 3 June 1901. It was the writer and composer R. Kelso Carter who asked
about Dowie's claims. Murray, 293-294. Dowie's troubles were multiple at this point. Since
the May of 1900 there had been at least eight stories in the New York Times reporting his
battles with the courts, centering in suspicious financial dealings and the deaths of
persons under his ministry.
heard A. B. Simpson make the remark:
George White heard the remark. White family records.
166 The reaction inside Shiloh: Murray, 293 294; EG, January
1-14. 1902. p. 351.
She had taken a leap: EG,
December 13 to January 1. 1901. p. 336.
"If I am a true prophet":
Ibid., November 12 to December 12, 1901. p. 314.
On Thanksgiving Day: LEJ,
25 November 1901.
Not so Hardy: LEJ, 12 December 1901:
NYT, 14 December 1901.
167 He quickly verified five cases: LEJ, 22 January, 11 February, 13
February 1902. For the increase in epidemics, note NYT, 24 March 1900 and 15 December
Shiloh was hardly unique: LEJ, 27 November
1901 and 19 February 1902; NYT, 6 January 1901 and 14 February 1902.
Most of the hilltop's fifteen cases:
Pages 169 to 183
169 In "a joyous fury" : For this through the arrival in
Jerusalem. see Hiss, 300-311; Murray 296-306; EG, December 22 to January 1, 1902. p.
317-325 and January 1 to July 1, 1903. p. 1-15.
Conditions had been crowded: Ibid. p. 2- 4.
170 "Oh, dear ones": EG, January 15 - 28, 1902, p. 352:
171 Frank hurried to his cabin: EG, January 1 15, 1902, 366 and July I
to July 1, 1903 Special Edition), p. 5.
"his marvelous natural strength". Hiss. 397.
Angel or not: Sulieman Girby died at Jaffa in the following
December during a cholera epidemic. According to Nathan Harriman, his death was considered
by the Jerusalem party as a "judgment of God." Girby was angry because the
Shiloh party had not brought him frequently promised gifts, and "sent a bill for his
services." LEJ, 2 September 1905, p. 2.
172 Pint sized among eleven: EG, June 1 to 30, 1901. 186.
The coronation of Edward VII: The coronation did
not actually take place until August 9. It was planned for June 26, but two days prior to
that Edward VII underwent surgery.
At that thirteen hour service: Hiss. 311.
Somewhere in the middle of the Atlantic: EG,
January I to July 1, 1903, p. 13. 14.
for just one intense month: Ibid. The outing
was reported in the Lisbon Enterprise (n.d.). Several of Sandford's sermons during the
month are printed in EG, September 1 to 30, 1902. 463-479 and July 8 to 31, 1902. p.
423-439. Murray quotes them, 307-311.
173 "Occupy till I come." Glad Tidings of the Kingdom,
October 2, 1902 to July 5, 1903. p. 13-14.
he buried his mother: EG,
January 1 to July 1. 1903, et 13. He placed a handful of ripened barley heads from
Palestine on her breast and spoke of her as the one responsible for his interests in world
"What did you do with. . . ?": EG, January
1 to July 1, 1903, 479.
And who was to do it?. EG, January I to July 1, 1903.
p. 13, 14; July 8-31, 1902,
p. 420 LEJ. July 25, 1902, p. 3.
174 Just before leaving...: Merlyn Bartlett remembered the Joshua parade.
Later he would only say: EG,
January 1 to July 1, 1903, p. 15. Murray, 312.
"I want this company to come up". EG,
July 8 to 31, 1902, p. 428.l
175 "Many are the ministers": Hiss, 183 184. 296; EG, December 31 to January 1,
331. As recently as mid December 1901, Sandford had dictated a letter to E. P. Woodward,
the source of so much of Shiloh's recent harrassment, warning Woodward of God's judgment.
"We have had our attention called to more than one person who has . . . gone against
movement, and today they are either in their graves or in the insane asylum. . . ."
printed the letter in his book, which was published in 1902. Woodward, 105.
Then there was still Nathan Harriman: Murray, 312.
"like an arrow" : Murray, 312-315, EG,
January 1 to July 1, 1903, p. 14, 15.
176 "Original party united": Doughty is not mentioned. These
words are the only public
reference Sandford made to the problem. Ibid.
177 "Renew the Kingdom": The events in Jerusalem during these weeks are recorded
Murray, 312-315, Hiss, 316-322.
"I have found David": A quote from Psalm 89:20.
"And I will set up one shepherd": Ezekiel
"Prepare a throne": GT of the K, October 21. 1902 to
July 5, 1903, p. 14.
"refer to a man so spiritual": Hiss 319; Hiss gives
as a reference GT of the K, October 21.
1902 to July 5, 1903, p. 6.
178 For almost ten years: A sermon on David is printed in The Glad
Tidings of the Kingdom
of God, Special Edition, January to May, 1919, p. 67-70.
"I took you from the sheepcote": I
Samuel 7:14 17. Also Jeremiah 31:31 34 and 33:15 16.;
Art of War, 4.
"And now that God has given me to this land"
Hiss. 316: GT of the K, October 21.
1902 to July 5, 1903, 1-3. (Though Hiss acquired these sources from Murray, Murray
himself does not use them.)
179 "No display, no robes": Murray, 315. From the diary of Joseph
To mark the occasion: Hiss, 322.
180 Melchizidek, the king priest: Genesis 14:18. For "Branch." Check
Isaiah 4:2 and Jeremiah 23:5. In August of 1899, another Maine native named John B.
Branch claimed to be fulfill this prophecy, making a connection between the
"branch" and one of the two witnesses who was to be martyred during the
Tribulation. He was shouted down when he stood up in a Shiloh meeting and tried to convert
Sandford. LEJ, 28 August 1899.
Doughty died of what ...: Harriman's account of this was
published in LEJ, 12 November 1904.
"We laid one to rest on Mt. Zion": EG,
January 1 to July 1, 1903 p. 16.
181 Whittaker, in the throes: Murray's and Hiss's record bring Whittaker back to
America. It is most improbable that he traveled beyond Liverpool, as he was there in
January and February on 1903, according to Eliza Leger and others who were also in
Liverpool at the same time. LEJ, 25 May 1904 and 3 December 1904. Murray gives EG,
January 1 to July 1, 1903 p. 16, as the source for Whittaker's return to America, but
Whittaker is not named there. Whittaker was still not home as late as February 1904.
Murray. 932-937. See LEJ, 5 February 1904 (Harriman's testimony at the trial).
and TrTr. 182-184.
Pages 185 to 200
Sources for this chapter are Arnold L. White. The
Almighty and Us, pp: 38-54, 71-95. and 127, as well as typescripts and interviews;
interviews with Merlyn Bartlett White; letters from Doris White Hastings and Avis White
Carr; Hiss. 197-198. A description of the arrival of the Sandford party from overseas in
November can be found in EG, October 1 to 31, 1902 p. 480-481.
Pages 201 to 216
201 exhilarated by the certainty: Murray, 316, Hiss. 323. Murray gives
three pages to the events of this chapter (316-319), Hiss. seven, (323-330).
Instead, he came back to a nightmare: Ed.
July 1 to July 30, 1903, p. 18, 19, 22 and October 1 to 31. 1902, p. 480-482.
202 Sandford's reaction: EG, July 1 to 31, 1903. p. 18.
Many of the dozens: lbid. p. 22.
three teen aged boys had run away: One
of these was Paul Harriman, who had remained at Shiloh with his sister Grace while their
parents were abroad. Mrs. Harriman and a younger child were now in Liverpool, along with
Flora, in her late teens. Nathan and Joseph were in Jerusalem. Paul probably returned to
Tacoma, where two of his older brothers still lived.
"I have been holding my breath":
LEJ, 26 September 1903.
203 Blizzards with forty mile an hour: LEJ, 5, 6, 10
Herbert and Maud Jenkins: ALW,
On December 10: LEJ, 10 December
1902. In the midst of this, fire swept through the
business district of Sandford's hometown of Bowdoinham on 14 December,
just missing the
home of his sister Maria. LEJ, 14 December 1902. p. 1: Webber, Sandford
204 "The most frightening thing": ALW. 87.
Susie Jenkins and her three
year old ... died: LEJ, 5 January 1903.
"against the will of God"
: EG, July I to July 31. 1903. p. 18 20.
"God was going to cut men down
like grass": Ibid.
205 Every cold . . . was potentially smallpox: Ibid. Olive Mills
developed another case of
spinal meningitis, and was again healed. Ibid. p. 20. As Sandford ministered to her, she
told him in her delirium that she was "suffering from mental
reservations." Murray. 319.
"We were frightened to the point": ALW, 86 ff.
206 Estella Sheller: For all of Sheller's comments, LEJ, 21 October
1904 Ibid. 29 October
(recorded as 28 in the newspaper. an error).
207 Meanwhile, cases of smallpox: ALW. 88. EG, July I to July 31,
1903, p. 20. "Thirteenth
Report of the State Board of Health of the State of Maine for the Two Years Ending
December 3, 1903."
Leander had come to Shiloh for one reason:
All details regarding Leander and Merlyn were provided by interviews with Merlyn Bartlett
208 Sandford, attempting to pray for him: EG, July I to July
31, 1903, p. 19. LEJ, 26 November 1904. All references to this date in the Journal entail
letters sent from Shiloh to the workers overseas, copies of which were later given to the
newspaper by Nathan Harriman.
209 The Nineveh Fast: Ibid.; ALW, 78-79; Interviews and
correspondence with Doris White Hastings and Avis White Carr: TrTr. 18 25. The fasts
overlapped, a total of five involving Sandford. the school. and the whole community. The
Nineveh Fast, instituted by the school apparently against Sandford's judgment LEJ, 6
October 1905), ran from Friday after dinner an the 23rd to breakfast on Sunday the 25th.
Leander had died of diptheria during the
night: LEJ, 29 (28) October 1904.
"God has been showing His wrath":
210 "Just about the time Mr. Sutherland died" : Ibid.
Also, GT of the K 2, July 1904. p. 73; Sandford thought Scripture indicated that God's
"headquarters of the universe" were "located in the north."
Dorothy Barton lay close to death:
ALW. 79: LEJ, 26 September 1903.
211 That gentle fugue of sounds: ALW. 79.
Feeling like Adam and Eve: LEJ, 26 November
212 The most of them: LEJ, 26 September 1903.
"Rebellion. Wrath renewed":
EG, July 1 to July 31, 1903 p. 19. 236
Five year old Esther: Murray,
February 16 Austin Perry wrote:
LEJ, 26 November 1904. All successive material regarding John's fast comes from this
source, as well as ALW, 84, and Mrs. Sheller's version of the story.
213 holding a match to John's fingers: ALW, 85.
216 Remarkably, work had gone on: The Truth 1.
March 1917, n.p.
"It was the real
beginning of my unbelief": LEJ, 26 November 1904.
Pages 217 to 226
217 The percentage was a heavy one: Report of the State Board
of Health. The Secretary's
Report. 1902-1903. Augusta: State of Maine. pp. 14-29, 105-111.
A few, like Estella Sheller. LEJ, 21 and
29 (28) October 1904.
218 The words "quitter": ALW and MBW. The
children were sensitive to the sudden absence
of families, since it entailed the loss of friends.
"I am following Elijah":
LEJ, 21 and 29 (28) October 1904.
Moses Leger removed his printing press:
LEJ, 10 December 1904. Like Mrs. Sheller, Leger left in the spring of 1903 did not go to
the newspapers until much later.
Joseph Harriman was being called back:
GT of the K 2. July 1904, p. 76-77.
219 Apart from everything else: Hiss. 343: EGA, July 1 to July 31,
1903, p. 20; GT of the K,
July 3 to October 2. 1903. p. 20.
. . . the yacht Wanderer: A student
gave Sandford a penny for a boat. Sandford asked
God to bless it one hundred fold, as was the custom by now. In Boston, Thomas Marshall,
a sailor from Nova Scotia and a Shiloh convert, handed him a dollar and an offer to help
sail the craft. Marshall's dollar was increased by one hundred the next day. Hiss, 339: GT
of the K, July 5, 1903 to October 2, 1903. p. 20.
That golden summer: LEJ,
28 July and August 1903: Gold T 2. August, 1914, V. 50. Some property was acquired along
the waterways. At Georgetown Island, Esmaralda Marr, a spinster, gave her huge house
overlooking the ocean to Sandford and went to live at Shiloh. The house was used later as
home to a large family, the Millers, who were often without food and were fed by
neighbors. Butterfield correspondence. Sandford made another attempt to gain a donation of
land from Tom Williams, who owned 300 acres on Georgetown Island. Williams threatened to
run him off the property. Memoir contributed by Frances Williams Gunnell.
220 At the end of May: Murray, 323; Hiss. 336.
Harriman went first to Liverpool:
LEJ. 26 September and 4 November 1903, Hiss. 337: Murray. 324-326.
221 In August, Arthur Grey Staples: Hiss. 339-343: LEJ. August
THE INSIDE STORY: LEJ. 26
September 1903. Once again Sandford's name was spelled wrong in the headlines.
224 "I am not seeking": LEJ, 28 September 1904.
Holland was the "second
witness": LEJ, 29 March 1903: Hiss 344-345; GT of the K, July 5 to October 2.
1903. p. 20. Hiss explains that the source for identifying the two witnesses with Elijah
and Moses is Malichi 4, Zechariah 4, and Revelation 11. In Zechariah's vision, two olive
trees pour oil into seven interconnected lamps. The olive trees, an angel explains, are
the "two anointed ones who stand by the Lord of the whole earth." Revelation 11
repeats these words. None of the references states that Elijah or Moses are the two
witnesses. That was inferred from other Scriptural "evidence" by those who were
eager to identify the two men. The "Schofield Bible" explains all this in
footnotes to the Biblical references, making clear the connections Sandford found between
the two witnesses and other prophecy. Sandford, of course, had no access to Schofield's
notes, but the ideas were abroad among premillenialists.
225 He was not one by nature: Perhaps he had proven
his warrior spirit in Liverpool. One of the most poignant stories to come out of Shiloh
literature is that of six year old Cecil Stanmore, who
was brought to England to be a companion to John Sandford and one of the first children to
play on the streets of the restored Jerusalem in fulfillment of prophecy. Cecil's parents
did not go and the boy never made it to Jerusalem, but remained in England in Holland's
charge. About the time John Sandford went through his fast, Cecil was enduring
difficulties of his own. When Holland was unable to bring the boy to repentance for some
disobedience, Cecil was beaten and made to stay in an out building on the Pas-dammin
property, wrapped in an overcoat for three days, each day accepting another beating,
until he acknowledged his sin. LEJ, 7 October 1905.
"People who come to the hilltop":
SAII, 11; EG, January 8 15, 1901, p. 25.
Joseph and Flora, both of whom: ALW,
"We speak evil of no man": LEJ, 16
October 1903 and 31 March 1904.
226 ...activities of Alexander Dowie: See NYT,
19-23 October 1903, as an example.
"The Kingdom of David" :
LEJ, 18 January 1904: Murray. 332; GT of the K, October 2. 1903 to March
31, 1904, p. 3-4. Long ago the constitution formed in 1893 had been "cast
aside" as gratuitous, since the Bible itself was all the constitution Shiloh needed. SYWG,
There seems to have been another epidemic
of smallpox at the end of 1903, apparently not major in its effect. Murray, 331. I have no
newspaper record for this
Pages 227 to 242
227 Gog and Magog: GTof the K, October 2, 1903 to March 31, 1904,
p. 4; ALW. typescript. Hiss says this was "the first instance of prayer at
Shiloh for a specific war situation." Shiloh
favored Japan because of the hope that "civilized Japan" would in time be used
of God in
"controlling the aftairs of heathen nations." Sandford was also eager to see
for its persecution of the Jews "and read the future union of Judah and Israel in the
of Jews from Russia to England and America. EG, February 3-16, 1901, p. 65 and
1902, p. 421.
In the middle of the month: GT of the K, October 2, 1903 to
March 31, 1904: NYT,24
January 1904. It was a "new sensation." Sandford wrote later, to enter the
where once he had been carried by his college friends "in the triumph of college
accompanied by band music. Still, he said, he had "never felt so great on the streets
Lewiston" as he did now at his arrest. It was like Paul going to Rome." GT
of the K.
October 2, 1903 to March 31, 1904. p. 4. 5; Murray, 333, 334.
228 Other than appearing: LEJ, 23 January, 1904.
"I felt as calmly
superior": GT of the K, October 2, 1903 to March 31, 1904. p. 4,5.
Of the six charges: The
trials that month were covered in the Lewiston Journal in the
following issues: 3. 4. 5. 6. 10 February 1904.
230 Confused by the realization: Merlyn told this story.
"the defendent had no testimony
to offer": Hiss. 360. Frank had decided to follow the
example of Jesus in Matthew 27, and remain silent. GT of the K, October 2, 1903
31, 1904, p. 6.
231 In an unlitigious society: In the New York Times
items covering scandals connected with
"faith curists" increase copiously between 1896 and 1900, most of them regarding
232 The Farmington trial: LEJ, 25. 26. 27 May 1904;
Hiss. 359-362; Murray, 335.
233 Caroline later firmly denied: LEJ, 6 October 1905.
("heartless" someone later
said) exhibition." Ibid.
235 "a hut in the pine grove": LEJ, 29 (28)
October 1904. Of course, if the boys had gone they would have broken quarantine, another
matter entirely. Frank Murray editorializes on Leander's death by saying that no one at
Shiloh "(with the exception of the leader)" thought Leander would die. Rather.
they assumed that "prayer would prevail" for his "recovery to a wiser young
manhood." When be did die. "the only conclusion faith could draw was that God
allowed it to be so. Such a conclusion. of course, draws angry protests from the world at
large, for knowing full well that they themselves deserve no better fate, they do not wish
face the obvious implications." Murray, 335.
Ida Miller: Dr.
Miller (DO) had been a practicing physician in Topeka. a member of
Charles Parham's group.
236 memories differed widely: In a later trial a total of four
said they had heard Sandford
pray specifically and earnestly for Leander. LEJ, 5. 6, October 1905. Others claimed that
he had not instituted the Nineveh Fast, but had actually disapproved of it. Ibid.
239 charged not to grieve: ALW, 85: LEJ, 8 November 1906.
Again, Harriman to the
newspapers: "It is significant that Mrs. Bartlett believed for weeks that her son's
240 two other doctors: Dr. Henry B. Palmer and Dr. Albert G.
Howard. TrTr. 220 passim.
242 and so the proceedings dragged on: LEJ, 3 January
and 6, 7, 9 October 1905. is
Pages 243 to 258
243 "The movement seems to be": GT of the K 2. July 1904, 0. 78.
At the end of March: Ibid.
October 2. 1903 to March 31. 1904, pp. 13. 14: Murray 341.
a new "Gospel barge":
The horse trader from Lynn. Massachusetts, who had given the
original chariot to Sandford in 1897, had ridden off with his gift and was now suing
for all the money he had given him because Sandford had not made him a leader and built
him a cottage on the property, as he "promised" to do. The horses had been
for funds to buy food at Shiloh. LEJ, 13 April 1904. The new barge, according to Arnold
White, was a piece of "heavy, impractical" equipment and was stored in
barn at the foot of the hill and seldom used. ALW, 177.
244 they began to come: LEJ, 2 - July and 13 August 1904:
GT of the K 2. April and May.
1904, p. 21, and June 1-15. 1904. p, 48.
The "laughing child":
LEJ. 19, 29 and 30 April 1904.
Interest in "cooperative
capitalism": Horton and Edwards, 234-237: Hays. 41-43. Hays
reports that sixty-eight novels on similar Utopian themes were published between 1865 and
1915 and that thirty-five of those came out between 1888 and 1895. Most proposed
cooperative production, profit-sharing, and a classless society. A. J. Gordon and other
evangelical leaders condoned the "divine communism on which the church was
founded." Gordon, 167. Bradford Peck, owner of B. Peck and Co. and a liberal
churchman, had organized in 1900 "The Cooperative Association of America."
intended to unite producer and consumer . . . for the
benefit of all" and "to create on this earth . . . a true heavenly
existence." The title of his
very romantic novel, published privately in 1900, is The World a Department Store: A
of Life Under a Cooperative System. Obviously the plan never got off the ground.
But they had
misjudged: Editor Mann of the Lisbon Enterprise never fell for the rumor. He
replied to it by printing a list of the thirty-six persons who had died at Shiloh since
as uncovered in the town records. LE, n.d. (circa July 1904).
245 Sandford had written a letter: FWS to William
Marstaller. January 18, 1904. The letterhead was The University of Truth. Contributed by
Place in the Wilderness: GT of the
K, April and May 1904, p. 21 and July 1904, p. 80:
Murray, 342; ALW, 175, 176. See Revelation 12. another favorite prophecy among
of every stripe over the years. Tuveson. p. 116-129: Miller, 217-239; John L. Thomas, in
Ante-Bellurn Reform, p. 164.
"Every David-hearted man ": GT of
the K, April and May 1904. Shiloh's withdrawal from
the world ran directly counter to another spirit of the age. One year later the Journal
a speech made in Lewiston by Josiah Strong in which he said, "No longer is a man
of others, isolated from the world." A century earlier "a man on his little farm
. . . might
become a moral failure and the world would not be touched." But today life was
interrelated . . . that when one fails morally, a bank goes under and thousands are
in the failure." LEJ, 17 January 1905.
The Marstallers and dozens: GT of the K, June 15-30,
1904, p. 63. Actually, two branches
of the Marstaller family moved to Shiloh. The estate was estimated at over $40.000. LEJ,
27 December 1904.
246 Meanwhile properties throughout Durham: Hiss. 367-371: ALW.
175-176. Elisha Beal, owner of a farm at the foot of the hill, would not sell out of sheer
determination not to give Shiloh an inch of what it wanted. His brother next door,
Leonard, sold Shiloh his "Sylvan Spring House" and adjacent properties. ALW.
As for the shoe factory: Gold T. 6. March 1915. p 313-314,
But as it turned out: Hiss. 367-37l: ALW. 157-176: LEJ, 27
247 Sandford'ss public reputation: ALW, 177 and typescript. Sandford
spent funds left over after the purchase of property to increase livestock in an
impractical way, in Arnold's memory of his father's reactions: "fine western horses
and fancy cattle . . . There were even two Shepherd dogs to watch over a handful of sheep
They were doing the hardest thing:
Hiss, 373-374: LEJ, 31 March 1904. The article, Harriman's previous writing for a 1900 Tongues
of Fire, extolls the "supernatural faith life" at Shiloh evidenced in
"forsaking all" for Christ. Sandford must have given the item to the Journal.
George Higgins: Cal Higgins,
correspondence and interviews. Two summer homes were purchased at this time by Shiloh
individuals with inheritances, one on Acre Island and one on Georgetown Island. These were
used occasionally as vacation localities for the children.
248 Auburn Temple: Hiss. 381-384; LEJ, 17 October 1904.
Sandford called the renovated building a fulfillment of Ezekiel 11:17. The Fergusons
filled its walls with murals, including a representation of the Woman in the Wilderness of
Revelation 12, clothed with the sun and crowned by seven stars.
"The Pledge of Loyalty": Hiss. 363-364:
Murray, 341: GT of the K. October 2, 1903 to
March 31, 1904, p. 1 9. With those added on July 4, the signatures totaled 507.
that Sandford "later saw the vanity of human resolution in such matters." Doris
Hastings says she never heard another word about the Pledge from her parents or Sandford
in all her remaining years at Shiloh.
250 If he seemed pugnacious: Hiss, 348 352. See McLoughlin. Revivals,
16-23, on charismatic leaders.
Theodore Roosevelt: Schlesinger, 288. The
quote is from Roosevelt's speeches during the 1900 Republican campaign.
"reeking of fornicative desire": LEJ, 26
September 1903. ALW. 81, 82.
251 At Pas dammin: Hiss, 331-332; LEJ, 29 (28) October 1904, and 3
December 1904, and 31 November 1906.
Sandford recalled the Liverpool school: LEJ, 13
The Jerusalem party: LEJ, Saturday Magazine,
27 January 1923.
Islamic anger toward the Shilohites: Murray,
with revolvers in their belts: Hiss. 332;
EG, July 8 31, 1902, p. 439 (a report to Shiloh by Victor Barton.)
suddenly closed the mission: According to
the Lewiston Journal in a later report, the school had broken up when word reached them of
Sandford's Elijah claims, an idea unacceptable to some of the students. LEJ, 8 August
252 Frank Templeton and Victor Barton died: Murray. 371; Hiss, 333-335;
LEJ, 15 October and 12 November 1904. The American consul, Selah Merrill, was from
Andover, Massachusetts. He had helped Sandford and Gleason with their arrangements in 1898
and was familiar with Shiloh's presence in Jerusalem.
Jean Steven's account: LEJ, 4 November 1904.
Eliza Leger offered the Journal: LEJ,
3 December 1904.
A week later: LEJ, 10 December 1904.
254 "I don't have to be hungry": LE, n.d.
Only a few were succeeding: For
the on going battle. see LEJ, 17 February 1905 and 2 November 1906.
Charles F. Dunlap:
The story was covered in eighteen items in the Journal between November
17, 1904 and August 26, 1905.
In Aroostook County: NYT, 17
255 Lisbon Falls Board of Trade: LEJ, 17 December 1904.
Henry Coolidge: LEJ, 21 December
the cruelty case: LEJ, 14
Exceptions filed by Shiloh's attorneys:
LEJ, 13 July 1905. (Sandford was fined on 13 October.)
Supreme Judicial Court . . . at Portland:
LEJ, 25 June 1904.
In October 1905, the tired case: The Portland judges granted
permission for a retrial. which
Sandford's lawyers succeeded in transferring back to Auburn and a different judge. LEJ, 5.
6, 7, October 1905. The new judge skinned down the charges to one, failure to provide
and told the jury that only if this was done out of malice could Sandford be considered at
fault. Supreme Judicial Court, State of Maine vs. Sandford Atlantic Reporter 59
Pages 259 to 271
259 "an old sailor's maxim: From Mabel Loomis Todd, Corona
and Coronet (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin and Co., 1889). xxv.
On March 9, 1905: Golden Trumpet
1. Easter 1913. p. 74.
"Racer to be Gospel Ship": NYT, 21
April. 1905: Hiss, 389-392: Murray 367-368.
260 Mrs. Todd described her: Todd. 3. 4. Find an excellent description of
the Coronet in Timothy Murray's article, "Coronet: Whither Away?"
Wooden Boat 32 (January-February 1980) 20-27, and two pamphlets, "The Yacht Coronet"
and "Coronet: America's Last Surviving 20th Century Grand Yacht,"
printed by Frank S. Murray (as Capt. Murray) in Gloucester, Massachusetts, n.d. I toured
the boat in the late sixties.
Frank Sandford bought: Hiss. 392.
Even that July: LEJ, 24 July and 7
261 "Start for Jerusalem: Hiss. 397. Glad T 3, July 1904 October 2,
1905. 87: LLJ. 3 and 7 June, 1905. Sandford considered this the beginning of the
"second exodus" of the children of Israel, as described in Jeremiah 16: 14, 15
"and I will bring them again into their land that I gave unto their fathers."
'Murray covers the first voyage in pages 368-381.
262 The sailors, Shiloh men: Murray, 383.
The McKenzies of Nova Scotia, etc.:
Hiss. 330, 401; Murray, 375. Gordon Murray's father was a physician and Gordon had
expected to study medicine himself. Arnold remembers that he had an especially gentle way
with the sick. The Truth 2, March 1919, p. 82.
"Let's get out of here": Hiss, 402
arrived in Jaffa: LEJ, 8 July 1905. Of the
original Twelve, only Emma Barton, Elnora Emerson, Margaret Main, and Willard and Rose
Gleason remained. Mary Guptil and Eddy Doughty had both died; Nathan Harriman had
defected; Almon Whittaker, Joseph Harriman. and Adnah (Guptil) Harriman had returned to
Emma Barton: Murray, 371. 377.
263 Convinced such a thing: Murray, 382.
"gone into Baal worship": Hiss,
404: LEJ, 27 October 1906; LE, n.d.
Sandford had been an advocate:
ALW. 178. Note Daniel 1:12 and I Kings 17:6 ff. It was, in fact, the manner in which God
provided for Elijah which led Shiloh to the two meal a day regimen back in 1901. EG,
December 13 to January 1, 1902. V. 329.
The Rebecca Crowell: Hiss. 404-407.
As a barkentine her foremast was square rigged.
her main and mizzen masts schooner rigged. "Rather wide in the beam," she had
carried many cargoes, such as coal and molasses. Her sails were raised and lowered by a
winch powered by a donkey engine, one luxury the Coronet lacked. ALW, 184.
264 Four teen aged boys: ALW. 182-187.
The twelve students: Stories
frequently told by Arnold and Merlyn.
265 Late in August: Hiss, 407-408: LEJ, 30 July 1906. By now
the Coronet had been involved in two accidents, one a collision with the Wanderer
in a training exercise in Casco Bay. and, more recently, running aground on a rock in
South Freeport Harbor. Besides the price of the Kingdom (probably close to $
10,000), and the cost of her renovation, the repairs to the Coronet came to another
$57,000. In the process, though, weaknesses in the boat's structure were uncovered and
corrected. LEJ, 23 August 1906; Murray, 383-384.
While the boats were dry docked at Snow's
Shipyard at Rockland for the overhaul, a group of boys in the teens, hanging around in the
hope for part time work, watched Sandford "going back and forth to the ships."
Afraid he might "hypnotize" them, they never did approach
him for employment. Letter from Harry M. Keating to Down East, July 1974. By now, such
specious notions about Sandford and his followers had multiplied. Walter Williams, fifteen
years old, on his way home in a downpour one night on Georgetown Island, passed the
farmhouse where the Shilohites lived and was terrified enough by their shouts and cries in
prayer to strike out for home, heedless of puddles. His father found his rubbers the next
morning stuck in the mud outside the Shiloh house. Story provided by Frances Gunnell.
266 another harp: A harp was first mentioned in 1903 (EG,
January 1 to July 1, 1903, V. 16 in which Sandford related hearing God say, shortly after
the David revelation, "An instrument of twelve strings."
Out on the Atlantic: For the crossing. ALW.
267 Neither craft making it on time: Hiss, 412; ALW, 199. Both
boats celebrated the holiday separately with band music and a prayer service. On the
Kingdom. during the singing of a lively restoration tune, an elderly sailor, Captain
Moses, joined in an arms' length clasp with Miss Kilpatrick and danced a jig for joy,
reports Arnold, but stopped when they were reprimanded by Holland.
Arnold was chosen: ALW, 216, 203.
269 the Plain of Issus: ALW, 203-206; Hiss, 414-415. Arnold and Hiss
say "fair winds bore them" into the channel. Murray says they did not want to go
and were "driven." Murray, 394.
270 the new Coronet thirty: Hiss, 413; ALW. 207.
the two small boys of Rose & Willard
Gleason: Hiss, 420.
The wedding was performed: ALW,
214-221, for the wedding and its consequences, and Avis White Carr, correspondence.
Pages 273 to 283
273 A new gust of criticism: LEJ, 24 July, 28 August, 2 September, 1905 and
1, 5, 17
November 1906; Hiss, 410.
Fred Caillat's wife: Her first name
is never given. LEJ, 29 September and 27 October
1906. Arnold thought her story was exaggerated in places. Isaac Gleason has no memory of
a time when his father ate food that he himself was denied. He does remember being hungry,
sometimes for as much as three days. Gleason, interview.
274 a petition to Govenor William Cobb: He had no power to act, he
claimed. LEJ. 13 December 1906.
Nathan Harriman: LEJ, 8 November
not a word of unpleasantness: But he
wrote about it later. ALW, 238 239.
275 At age eighteen: The policy was that young people out of
school would apprentice under
the supervision of older members, learning skills. ALW, 243.
He chopped green wood: Mrs. Caillat also
commented on this, saying that sometimes the wood was covered with ice as well, and
puddles formed under the stoves. LEJ, 27 October 1906.
276 The class had graduated: ALW, 238.
"I don't know how . . .".
Doris White Hastings, undated letter.
277 Years later, his father: ALW, typescript.
Albert Field, the jeweler: LEJ,
20 July 1907. ALW, 107-108.
Its body was taken: Both Avis and
Doris White remember the Browns coming and going
from the direction of the Armory and David's Tower for many days in a row. Doris thought
the Browns must be living in the Armory. "Mr. S. had a room under the Armorv which
could be entered . . . by a trap door." Doris White Hastings, letter, June 1985.
338 "go and have a picture" LEJ, 20 July 1907.
279 Arnold tells one more . . . story: ALW, 306 307. The following
data is gathered from various family sources. Both Doris and Avis tell almost identical
Santa Claus stories. The wrecking of the suite is from ALW. I 17 118.
Chapter Twenty one
Pages 285 to 299
285 It was summer before the yacht: Plans to sail had
been disrupted by illness. In January the boat was under quarantine for fifty days for
smallpox. One sailor died. but no one else contracted the disease. Deborah Sandford also
became extremely ill with typhoid. During these waits Sandford, with his nephew Everett
Knight as stenographer. began a writing project of
monumental size called the "Davidic Library," the first volumes of which were a
Scripture based on his own knowledge of the Holy Land. He was also dictating from week
to week an expanded log of their experience at sea, in time a book titled The Golden Light
Upon the Two Americas (Amherst. New Hampshire: The Kingdom Press. 1974). Murray.
The journey was to begin: Hiss. 401. 423-424.
The ship held a full complement: Hiss. 415-416, Murray.
390-392. Jean Dart had studied
to be a medical missionary and gave up the profession because she believed in "the
power of the Word of God itself." Gold T 2, New Year's 1913, p. 52.
286 Almon Whittaker was again separated: LEJ, 27 October 1906.
The trip was archetypal: Hiss,
416-420. Symbolism converged in the Coronet. The trip
around the world was to be something like Joshua's march around Jericho, and a
of the way for the mighty outpouring . . . of Davidic love." For the Four Horses and
white charger, see Murray, 420: Gold T 1. November 12, 1912. p. 15 and Christmas 1912.
287 spent a week in prayer: They were probably fasting
most of this time. Extended periods
of prayer, often in silence, were customary now and never considered long or boring by
involved. Sandford could "inspire a wooden Indian," Lester McKenzie
In these particular meetings, he cut off all petition prayers ("Stop that
Gimme!") and insisted
on worship. Hiss, 120 n.
"the white light of His" :
Hiss, 413: Gold T 1. October 1913, p. 7.
Their battle began: Murray, 408
She was already filled: Murray. 403
405. 411 416.
288 Then, cannon firing a farewell: Mabel Loomis Todd remembered
similar departures from ports, "dipping flags and booming cannon, pennants
flying." Todd, 28. The cannon were often
answered by volleys from other boats. William Hiss says that the cannon on the Coronet
"no Big Mac carbide toy, but the real thing, a solid brass number about the size of a
pounder that takes a three inch wide shell with five ounces of powder." Hiss, letter
author, July 24, 1973.
West Indies as Columbus had done: Golden Light, 37-82.
In early November: Hiss, 429 431: Murray, 422 425.
"I've got North America: The Golden Light, 88 98.
289 The "blind Horn's hate": For the trip around the horn.
Hiss. 430 4 40: Murray, 425- 442; The Golden Light. 105-171.
"Before the yacht can be
snugged": Gold T 2, April 1913, 350
290 Sandford had slaughtered a lamb: Recorded in The Truth 1,
March 1917. p. 2.
291 "the white of the whale": In Herman Melville's
Moby Dick (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1967). 163-171. Moby Dick was first published in
292 COUNTED ALL JOY: Hiss, 438. Murray says ALL JOY, and that
it was not added until sometime in the Pacific when Everett Knight counted sixty patches
on one side of the main sail. Murray. 438.
"Good Shepherd Beach": Gold T 1,
May 1913, P. 99.
293 They had just headed: Hiss. 440-441. Murray, 441-445.
Two others had died: Hiss. 416.
The return cable from Maine: Hiss.
441: ALW. 197 and diary: " . . . a terrific battle for the harp . . . "
Throughout the summer and fall: For
this part of the journey, Hiss. 442-450; Murray,
445-461; Golden Light, 173-256.
294 Roosevelt had gone on a bear hunt: LEJ, 3 June 1905.
Hunting at Mas a Fuera: Gold T
4. March 1916. p. 372.
When Frank Sandford refused: Morning
Herald and Daily Telegram, 27 November to 1
December 1908: Frederick I. Anderson. "The Man Who Heard Voices." Harper's
Weekly, 15 February 1908, p. 10-12.
Wrote Almon Whittaker: Gold T 1. New
Year's 1913, p. 48.
295 Mail at Sydney: Though I know the Coronet received
mail at Sydney (Murray 453). I have no proof that Whittaker heard from his wife there, I
draw the conclusion on the basis of the chronology of Florence's troubles. LEJ, 6, 8 June
1910; Hiss. 453.
fully in accord: Florence had
testified in Sandford's behalf at the 1904 trials.
Harriman had written: LEJ, 5
February 1904 and 8 November 1906; TrTr. 182-184.
his vow in 1897: EG, January
15-28, 1902, p. 363-364.
296 Shiloh, meanwhile, raised: Arnold's diary for January 30,
1908, mentions sending a cablegram to Zion for all three rents "over the water."
The third must have been Alexandria, to which the Bolsters had returned at their own
request. Murray, 398.
297 Seeing wild cattle: LEJ, 9 October 1909.
The mail waiting at Capetown: Murray.
459-460; LEJ, 10 and 30 January 10, 30 and 2 November 1908.
and in a smacking breeze: Gold T 1,
June 1913, p. 14, 15.
298 John R. Mott: Murray. 456: Ahlstrom, vol. 2, 344;
Handy, 130-138. 364 "I am that" Gold T 2. August 1914, p. 259.
299 On July 18, 1909: Murray, 460.
Chapter Twenty two
Pages 301 to 319
301 "Thank you for your letter": FWS to Merlyn Bartlett: September 9,
He was waiting: LEJ, 31 August 1909.
paid for some cabbages: Helen Curtis Brown,
a sanity hearing for Sandford: LEJ, 13 September
1909. George White, Wendell's brother, had been doubtful of Sandford's mental health for a
long time. A letter to George from Luella White, his sister, a fringe member of Shiloh,
dated December 19, 1909, reads: "I haven't been able to discover a single trace of
insanity or see signs of mental mania of any kind nor can Wen who had been closely
associated with him for years."
302 Behind the scenes. ALW. 121.
"a new infusion of life":
sailing to Jaffa: Murray. 465-469.
Ralph was largely at fault:
Both brothers and their families had
suffered: Phyllis Gleason Hassen. Ralph's daughter, says Ralph and Christine refused
quinine for their children. Arnold White thought Rose lost her sight because of untreated
infection. Isaac Gleason, Rose and Willard's son, claims that his mother's blindness
resulted from an early bout with scrofula and was inevitable, since Rose would not undergo
the surgery which would have corrected the problem. Phyllis Hassen. correspondence.
Isaac Gleason, interview.
303 "go around the Holy Land": Hiss, 421; The Truth 1. October 1917. p.
The trip home was very long: Murray, 466
467: LEJ, 8 May 1910.
But no arrangements: LEJ, 6 and 8 June 1910.
304 Sandford gave an interview: Ibid., 19 May 1910.
the animals were starving: Ibid., 11
a kind of confederacy: ALW, 127: Hiss,
450-455; LEJ, 19 January 1909 and 6, 9 June
1910; L. H. Beal. Poems (Auburn. Maine: Merrill and Webber Co.. 1909). p. 9.
"chain of one hundred missions":
LEJ. 19 May and 31 August 1910. The first mention of the North Pole that I am aware of is
in EG. February 3 16. 1901. p. 62: "Evelyn Baldwin, the Arctic explorer, is preparing
his expedition to the North Pole. but I sometimes wonder . . . whether the mighty love of
God in this movement will not in its search for 'every creature' be first to discover that
long sought place."
305 Those who had been listening: Nathan Harriman at one time
before his defection wrote that when Sandford appeared to be boasting, he really was not
it is "refreshing unconsciousness." There was no "false modesty" about
what the Spirit had chosen to do through him. "To a shallow person. it is supreme
conceit: to those who have learned to value reality, it is sublime." EG, 24
January 8 15. 1901. p.25.
children and I...": LEJ, 6 June 1901; Hiss. 453 455, Murray. 467 471. Murray
says that by now Mrs. Whittaker's "fancied grievances had snowballed all out of
proportion to the facts."
306 "men who have no rights over you": In a later statement
Florence answered a question probably sparked by those words. The "highest moral tone
prevailed" at Shiloh, she assured the newspaper. In the thirteen years she had been
in the movement she had never seen otherwise. The "rights" were referred to the
chain of authority. Women who were widowed, or single, or without their husbands for
various reasons, answered to the authority of whatever man happened to be in charge.
His family was taken: LEJ, 6, 7, 8, 9
June 1910. The Whittaker divorce was finalized on 4 November 1912.
307 "It is a wonderful thing:" Gold T 3, April 1915.
trained in navigational skills:
Murray, 471-472: LEJ, 7 June 1910.
On June 8: LEJ, 10 and 13 June
"When they persecute you":
Murray, 471-474. See also 'Murray's Appendix B. 914-917,
which intends to explain Sandford's motivation at this point in the story
308 The Coronet, on her cruise: LEJ, 13 June and 7 July,
1910: Hiss. 455-458.
309 "Give up": Murray, 413,
several members of
the A class : ALW, 245;
Big Mud Island: Merlyn Bartlett was on this trip. LEJ, 29 August 3 and
20 September 1910. Murray. 473-474.
310 "We anchored under Fort Monroe": ALW, 244 248.
311 The remark was repeated: ALW. 83, 216.
312 had recently disfellowshipped: Whittom had run into trouble with
Sandford by sleeping on the deck of the Kingdom against orders during the trip back from
the Holy Land several months before. LEJ, 8 December 1911. Arnold never remembered how he
and Enid and Hazel Housler got back to Shiloh. I have guessed by train. since I have no
record of a sea trip north by either boat at that point. ALW, 247.
No matter who sailed her: Murray, 474; Hiss, 458.
"Well, Uncle Frank": John Davis told the story
of Everett's remark to Arnold.
313 Charlie Jones, barely : Interview. Many of the details that follow
have been supplied or verified by Jones.
Caught unaware: Murray, 475. The drowned men
were Alexander Sinclair and Pat O'Connor. Sinclair could not swim; O'Connor was a good
swimmer, who would often dive from the rail of the Yacht and swim under it.
314 took to his own stateroom: Hiss, 457-458: ALW 250 251;
John Adamson began a daily record:
Diary, kept from January 1 to September 10, 1911. For the voyage as far as Africa,
Hiss, 459 462: Murray 475 477; ALW. 248 258.
Chapter Twenty three
Pages 321 to 333
321 Little by little: Besides Adamson's diary and Jones's
interview, Hiss, 462-479; Murray, 475-491: ALW, 257-273.
325 did not know that Sandford: LEJ, 30 October 1911.
326 They were all arrested: One of the sailors later said that Sandford
signed an agreement to make no complaint to United States authorities. Haiti needn't have
worried. SUN, 23 October 1911.
327 Jabez Selleck: LEJ, 22 October 1911.
"two different steamers" :
LEJ, 24 July 1911. The newspaper published a report from a Norwegian steamer, Intares.
Captain McKenzie gave his card for the bill, "Kingdom Yacht Club, Portland."
328 Whittom . . . requested a landing: LEJ, 1 November
329 Roland Whittom time to think: LEJ, 24 October 1911. See Ernest
Becker's chapter 7, p. 127-158 on the 'spell' sometimes cast by power figures.
331 Mr. Cook . . . died: ALW, 268. Cook was buried oft
333 "were disappointed" LEJ, 9 December 1911.
Soon after they lost their nets, said Jones, Mr. Sandford "wanted a chowder."
They were spearing small dolphin off the deck. Sandford, "down at the bowsprit,"
threw one to Charlie on watch by the rail a three foot long fish. Jones fumbled the
slippery thing and Sandford teased him about it for days: "Must of thought he was
home picking potatoes when he dropped that fish."
"I shiver at the thought":
LEJ, 9 December 1911.
Chapter Twenty four
Pages 335 to 348
335 George McKay's was simple: SUN, 31 October 1911.
Sandford's version of it: LEJ, 9
336 the word "Distress": LEJ, 2 November 1911.
337 "never letting the children suffer": LEJ, 23
: Murray, 482.
LEJ, 2 November 1911.
: LEJ, 2 October 1911.
338 "You may be thankful" : LEJ. 9 December 1911.
disasters in the North
Atlantic: NYT 10 and 17 October 1911. Murray cites two others off New England.
Murray, 937 n 3.
340 Harry Whittom who kept them: One sailor, Louis
Broughm said it was Sandford who kept everyone's spirits up. Hiss. 473 475; LEJ, 24
342 "the mouth of the lion": Supposedly, a Portland
businessman. a Catholic who knew and liked Sandford, met the Coronet off Portland
in a motor yacht and urged him to transfer to his boat and flee to Canada. Sandford
refused. Murray. 483.
"He likes my
heart": Murray. 484; LEJ, 19 'May 1917.
The women and children:
LEJ, 23 October 1911. Mary Campbell, in a letter to Arnold, said she was unable to
recognize her brother Guy when she saw him just off the boat, he had lost so much weight.
343 "And prisons would palaces prove/": Murray, 508.
quoting each other: LEJ,
23 26. 31 October and 1. 2 November 1911. The trial was covered on 8 and 9 December 1911.
346 "A devil of a Lord": SUN 31 October 1911.
Yet they had not broken a law:
Young Joseph Harriman had written in 1904 that Shiloh had "always stood for strict
obedience to the common law," but that nevertheless Shiloh was, "not to be
judged by human standards, but by the standards of God as revealed in the Bible." As
open to interpretation as the "standard of God" might be, the question is
whether or not Joseph meant Shiloh should be "above" the law or that it should
consider itself under another law that goes "beyond" the secular law, not
excluding itself from secular law but applying to itself the higher law of love. Gt of the
K, June 15 30. 1904. p. 56.
347 On December 17: Murray, 491 506. LEJ, 19 December
348 "Shackled" to: Mr. Sandford's Account, Written from the
Federal Prison at Atlanta, Georgia, of His Arrest and Journey South (Shiloh. Maine, 1912).
8 9. Reprinted in the Portland Express Advertiser, 7 February 1912. The two
thieves had robbed the Waterville. Maine, post office. Sandford was handcuffed to them and
may have sat "between" them. Ibid.. p. 11.
a mere $2,500: Murray says $1,500.
Murray, 937. note for p. 484.
Chapter Twenty five
Pages 349 to 365 page
349 On February 7: LEJ 12 January 1916;
Gold T 4. September 1916. p. 389.
354 Coronet . . . totally renovated: Murray, 526. 425
"Certainly not!" LEJ,
9 December 1911.
355 prisoner # 3479: For details of Sandford's life in
prison. Hiss. 483 495, Murray, 507- 523.
He felt the tragedy keenly:
GT of the K of God 1, n.d.. p. 7. In 1913 he took down all his pictures and
mementoes and kept just one in his cell. " a naked athlete . . . his shoulder against
the earth at about the city of Jerusalem to move the globe for God." Beside it he
hung the word COURAGE, and later sent it to Shiloh with the words, "Glad and
Unafraid." Gold T 1. Easter 1913. p. 66-67.
"There's one for the Lord,
Elijah" : Hiss, 489.
"the lines have fallen":
Gold T 2, May 1914 p. 332: GT of the K of God, n.d., p. 41.
356 "Let your body": Gold T 2. March 1914. 216; Prison
Letters. 28 April 1913.
No one objected: Mary
Hastings remembered apple picking parties, moonlight skating with bonfires on the shore.
Ford Hastings remembered Friday night band concerts. Some years before, the carpenters had
built bobsleds for winter sliding.
"And nations shall come":
Gold T 2, February 1914. p. 193.
Chief Alfred C. Sam: Hiss,
505 512; Murray, 528 535. The Chief Sam story, minus any reference to Shiloh, is told in
William E. Bittle and Gilbert Geis, The Longest Way Home: Chief Alfred C. Sam's Back
to Africa Movement (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1964). 430
357 "Capt. McKenzie is away" : Prison Letters, 13
358 The idea had been initiated: GT of the K, July
1904. p. 76 77; Gold T, October 2. 1912, p. 165 and Thanksgiving 1913. Arnold kept these
issues in a notebook cover with his name carefully penned inside.
"I have a
plan": Hiss, 502 505; Murray. 547-552.
359 Merlyn Bartlett gathered up her: September 20, 1914.
His note. January 15. 1915.
John . . . would begin:
Hiss, 490 492: Murray. 424-425.
360 The "Eye" was a Sanhedrin: Wrote Sandford
from prison on September 12, 1914, "I
want a Young People's Sanhedrin -- 70 overcomers to judge every student who makes a 'mock
of sin' as 'fools' were said to do in Jerusalem -- chosen as fast as they develop. Select
. . . I hope they will make short work of anyone who wants to tread that
holy hill down:
just debar them altogether from the hilltop or from the games . . . . No one selected if a
single vote against him." Many former members of Shiloh have talked about the
Merlyn Bartlett. Doris and Avis White. Cal Higgins. ALW 352.
Ralph Gleason: He doubted all his
life that he had done the right thing in defecting and believed into old age that he was
"accursed." After leaving, Ralph wrote out twenty reasons why he knew Sandford
was a "false leader." One of these was his recommended harshness toward wives
("Keep you foot on her neck"). but Ralph was noted at Shiloh for his own tirades
of temper with his wife and children. Phyllis Gleason Hessen, correspondence.
361 Cal Higgins: He was eight when this happened. "Even at
my young age I couldn't escape the atmosphere existing in the Shiloh community -- any
deviation from the prescribed way of life. no matter how minor, could bring down the
wrathe and finger pointing by the leaders with the demand that violaters submit to extreme
mental and physical measures to purge their souls."
They did what they could: Stationery
was sometimes the spaces between the lines of an advertisement received in the mail;
envelopes were used many times over. A broken mirror or wash bowl was a small tragedy.
362 The leader's son: LEJ, 11 March 1914.
John hardly deserved:
LEJ, 19 January 1916. Arnold and Doris tell the anecdote about knowing God's will. Avis
wrote in 1968: "To this day I have never been able to understand the harshness,
stern, uncompromising, hanging over hell attitude.
right in the middle of the
"Eye": Doris gives this information in correspondence. Sandford made the
comment about Enid in a September letter from prison.
363 disappearance of his sister Marguerite: LEJ, 22 January
1915. Thirty two people left that winter, according to the Journal. Young people were
leaving not so much because of the lack of food as the "narrowness of the
"every minute of the day"
The quotes and the story about the shoes are from an interview of Marguerite Sandford
Linde by Arnold, circa 1968. in Marguerite's Florida home. ALW. 353,
Sandford's way of honoring:
Hiss, 519. The letter from Sandford to Marguerite is published in Gold T 2.
October 1913, pp. 155 156. The spelling of Marguerite's name here is one of several
variations that appear.
365 "I know it seems": The Truth 1, February
1917. p. 4.
Pages 367 to 378
367 T.B. among
Shiloh's cows. Cal and Miriam Higgins interviews,
370 Prepare For War: ALW,
351-358: Hiss. 522-525: Murray. 5 57-549. 580-582; The Truth 1. May 1917, p,
32a and August 1917. p. 38c.
"I never had such a sense": "Letter
to the Young Men" from Mr. Sandford. July 20, 1917; Murray, 558; The Truth 1. December
1917. p. 6.
"It is sweet to die": The
country was shot full of such talk, of course. Woodrow Wilson also thought of the war as
an Armagaddon of sorts, with America the world's savior. Tuveson.
209-211. As had happened in 1898, even some pacifistic arms of the church "Could
include war in their crusading pattern." Lyman Abbott, like Josiah Strong a champion
of the civilizing possibilities in American imperialism, called the World War a twentieth
century crusade." Handy. 151.
371 "Our people die
well"- The Truth 2. September 2. 1918. p p. 29.
Pages 379 to 392
Mr. Sandford was coming home. Hiss, 528-530: Murray. 571-575. Later Sandford spoke of
his release as graduation from the "Iron University of the South." GT of the
K of God, January 1919, p. 1.
380 "I never
wanted a man around-- The Truth 1. September 1917. n.p.
"swept up the hill of the
Lord".- LEJ, 16 September 1918. 465
381 In that two-hour message: Ibid.; Murray. 541.
382 The first proof. Hiss, 529; LEJ, 20 September 1918.
Deborah has fled: LEJ, 20
September 1918. Actually, she finished high school in Lewiston. LEJ, 14 May 1920.
happened next is: Murray, 575-577. Doris and Avis witnessed this occasion. One
of the patients was a close friend.
White recalled. Doris described the meetings in a letter, undated.
388 John Sandford and Theodora Holland: Hiss, 531.
When he had sailed to France.
ALW. 359-383; The GT of the K of God, February 1919. p.26; Murray. 580.
Sandford had begun to get more specific about the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: The Coronet's
journey was the White Horse: the Kaiser was astride the Red Horse of war; wartime
famine in Europe was the Black Horse: the Pale Horse was the influenza epidemic. See
"control" events overseas: Murray, 570-571. Murray drew this record from
notes in Sandford's Bible.
Pages 393 to 401
393 $7,000 raised
in two months: On December 31. 1918. Shiloh met at 9:00 AM and prayed steadily for
fifteen hours, until after midnight. Murray, 58O-581.
Worse, the spirit of lassitude and
failure: Sandford hated indications or weariness. In the summer of 1902 he had said: "I will not have a
disconsolate one here. I will not have people around here looking tired and worn out. I
want people that will be "fair . . . and clear . . . and terrible" and
beautiful. . . . I want the Song of Songs dancing through your hearts. . ."
EG, July 8-31. 1902, p. 438.
482 "Remove".- Murray, 584-585. Sandford wrote
later than he had been ordered to "remove" for the great field of labor. GT of
the K of God, March 1919, p. 35. Murray says that like Moses, "Mr. Sandford
periodically had found it necessary to separate himself from his people."
395 began a new periodical: The Glad Tidings of the Kingdom
of God. There were five issues between January and May 1919, undated (dates can be
inferred from the contents). Within each issue sections were introduced by the old logos
of the earlier magazines, a quite awkward arrangement. This was the sixth periodical.
There had been one other, The Truth.
400 "Old Ladies Home": Recently
organized at the Wolfe's farm in South Durham. By now Shiloh had more than its share of
elderly women. The home was run by a nursing staff. Wendell and Annie were in charge of
domestic duties. Hiss, 371.
Pages 403 to 416
403 In July 1919: They were married on the
26th by an Episcopal rector in an outdoor ceremony on an estate called "Croydon"
in Daylesford, Pennsylvania. It was a borrowed location, available through the connection
of old Shiloh friends, now defectors. In fact, all their wedding guests were defectors,
since they knew no one else other than relatives, and none of those appeared, not even
Elvira Bartlett, who was against the marriage.
the shades in the rear of the car: One
of the first stories about Shiloh I ever heard repeated. Many remember Sandford's
nervousness in those days.
"Victory!": Hiss, 535;
404 Hachilah: Murray, 594-597; Hiss, 535. The
retreat in Hachilah and most of whatfollows is recorded in Doris's diary.
405 Hachilah burned: Murray, 597.
406 Doris had never heard her complain: Doris talks about this
period now in detail. Hairpins heavy in the hair, feet aching, legs turning to jelly, head
to vapor. Some of the women could hardly drag themselves up the stairs.
The story of the Beanes and the Hastings has been told through
interviews and correspondence with Doris White Hastings, David Hastings, Ford Hastings,
and Mary HastingsThomas.
408 "a Martyr Movement": Murray, 599-602.
By the day of the hearing: LEJ,
21, 23, 25, 26. 27 February, 1920.
411 Children's Protective Society: LEJ. 1, 5, 12
March and 1 May 1920; Hiss 538.
A precedent was being set: My
information comes from the Hastings family and the Lewiston Journal. Murray says
that "nothing substantial came of the Hastings case," but the "recurrenceof
such nuisance attacks convinced Mr. Sandford . . . that God was leading to a different
mode of activity." Murray, 601. Hiss depends on Murray as source for these
412 in a few days everything stopped: LEJ, 3, 10,
13 May 1920. Doris's diary picks up the story.
415 "Precious little band-" : Murray,
607. Doris summarized the letter in her diary.
The goodbyes "seemed
myriad": Hiss, 539-542.
416 CITY OF MYSTERY: LEJ, 14 May. 1920. A
lengthy and not unfair article on the Scattering.
Miss Haines: LEJ, 15 May 1920.
"Retire".- Murray, 605.
Pages 417 to 433
417 "Elijah of Shiloh Durham":
Portland Press Herald, 21 August 1936. The curiosity about Shiloh
has survived its closing. By rough count, more than fifty stories appeared in the Lewiston
Journal along between 1920 and 1970.
Soon after the directive: For the
retirement years, see Hiss. 543-604. and Murray 651-909. As William Hiss
explains, Frank Murray is almost the only source for this period. Actually, it is some of
Murray's best writing, as he was present as a young man for most of the time covered. I am
doing the merest summary of almost thirty years.
"not passive sheep".- Murray,
418 "Little Shiloah"., Isaiah 8:3. 396
419 "It will be as though": LEJ, 4 February 1933.
Marguerite nor Deborah: Deborah returned to
live with her sister Esther many years later.
420 The war in Europe: Murray, 684, 697. 836-840. 866-867.
"removing the veil": Ernest
Tuveson concludes his remarks on the first World War with these words: "It has often
been remarked that Americans are inclined to expect each crisis to be the final one, to
think each must be solved by a permanently decisive conflict. Nothing could be more
characteristic of an apocalyptic attitude.- Tuveson. 214. Note Frances Fitzgerald's final
chapter in Cities on a Hill (pp. 383-414) for one recent discussion of the history
of evangelical identification with American politics and policy, particularly its
the Twelve Tribes. Murray. 857-858.
421 "Great Ground Swell".- Murray,
calling itself Fundamentalism: For
helpful definitions and assessments of today's American fundamentalists and
evangelicals. see Evangelicals and Modern America, particularly George Marsden's
introduction on p. vii-xvi, Joel Carpenter's "From Fundamentalism to the New
Evangelical Coalition," p. 3-16, and Richard Ostling's article on
publishing and the media, p. 46-55.
"The devil is as good" -
"Don't look at me": Murray, 902.
The rider: He said, "The rider on the
White Horse in Rev. 6 is the forerunner of the Son of God." Murray, 867.
"were it not for someone living" Hiss,
"Remit".- Hiss. 586; Murray,
848-849. Jones was remembering that in Sandford's message to Shiloh before leaving
for prison, he had said: "There is not a wrong thing in my life that I know of."
422 "Go ye now unto": Hiss. 594.
At the close of the war. Murray,
423 Victor Abram: Murray, 871-871. 399
"Brighten the corner" Murray,
After March 2: Sandford outlived two
of his enemies. Harriman had died of cancer in 1922, and Charles Mann of the Lisbon
Enterprise in 1945.
"every sheep that wants a shepherd": Murray,
424 There by the grave: Murray described
the burial on pages 896-900. The announcement was made to the papers on 26 April.
429 "a pale and bloodless": Hiss, 603.
Shiloh tried to do this: Qualities, says
Annie Dillard in Living By Fiction, "in which the great world" seems
"often wanting: human significance. human order, reason, mind, causality, boundary,
harmony, perfection, coherence, purity, purpose and permanence." In The Seduction
of the Spirit, Harvey Cox suggests that in a ''healthy culture" religion
"would spawn both visionaries and codifiers, both prophets and priests. It would be a
source of energy and a basis for moral consensus. It would celebrate both heart and
"lonely hero": Alexis de
Tocqueville was concerned that democracy "throws [man] back upon himself alone, and
threatens in the end to confine him entirely within the solitude of his own heart."
See Ernest Becker's chapter, "What Is the Heroic Individual?" p. 257-285) in Denial
of Death. There is no question that one way the Shiloh story could be read (or told)
is as a study of the American ideal of heroism, with Emerson in one hand, or Thomas
Carlisle or Ernest Becker.
418 "as fine a Christian gentleman"- Murray.
916; Hiss. 603.